Second Writing Assignment

Please copy/paste your Second Writing Assignment to this page—thanks in advance!

Published by: roberttracyphd

Academic professor at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. I teach theory courses in Art and Architecture History. In addition, I also curate exhibitions on campus as well as in other venues nationally and internationally.

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37 thoughts on “Second Writing Assignment”

  1. Noah Rath
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    Art 477-677 Section 1002
    October 8, 2020
    Writing Assignment 2
    For this assignment, I have chosen the quote, “Painting, like passion, is a living voice” by Barnett Newman. I choose this quote because that is what I believe painting is. I have also decided to compare it to the beautiful oil on canvas painting, Mountains and Sea by Helen Frankenthaler in 1952. The reason why is because since I believe painting is also about expressing your passion and sharing your creative ideas and beliefs with others and Mountains and Sea shows that in my eyes. Therefore, I will talk about what I see in this painting and about how I feel about this painting.
    Within the painting, I see bright yet faded water-like colors splashed around on the canvas. The colors on the painting consist of red, green, and blue colors that are splashed on the beige colored background. I also see some of the colors mixing to form different colors on the canvas like grey and brown. Within the colors, I also see some small and thin black lines that look like pencil marks drawn all over the canvas. The lines seem to form shapes and when combined with the colors they make the painting stand out more. From that, I can tell that this painting shows a lot of artistic passion and emotion from the artist herself.
    To me, I feel that that this painting with its colors and brush strokes shows the voice, mannerisms, and style of the artist and what that artist voices in the painting. To me, I feel that this artwork symbolizes beauty, creativity, simplicity, and the voice of the artist who paints it. It also demonstrates the many things a painting can be and the many things that a painting might mean in the eye of the beholder. Which shows how the artist is creative and passionate about painting. Which is the kind of artist I am and see myself as.
    To me, the painting also shows a very bright tone in the work of art. For instance, the light faded-like colors all kind of look like water. The combination of the colors and the black lines also look like the formations of mountains, hence the name of the artwork. From that, I can see that the artist shows off a very bright and positive passion in her artwork. Therefore, it shows the very heart, mind, soul, and spirit of painting and what artists feel when they paint. All artists have special emotions and feelings about themselves and the world, so they tend to express those feelings through visual representation like art. Which is what I do when I make art whether it is painting or drawing.
    So, in conclusion, that is why I picked the quote “Painting, like passion, is a living voice” by Barnett Newman and why I think it best explains the concept of painting. This is also what I think, feel, and see in the oil on canvas painting, Mountains and Sea by Helen Frankenthaler. Both the quote and the painting symbolize both my views on painting and the kind of artist I am like when I paint. Art means a lot of things to everyone who does it and how they do it. It all depends on the kind of person the artist feels like and the emotions that artists put into their artwork.

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  2. Painting: Philip Guston. Painter’s Table (1973)
    Quote: “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” (Barnett Newman)

    The Painter’s Table was created by Philip Guston, a friend of Grace Hartigan who was also a fellow pop artist. To describe this painting, it can be akin to this quote: “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” – Barnett Newman. Going off this quote, the painting is very unique in style, color palette, content, and even spacing.
    The first thing you see in this painting is a flesh colored kind of pink. It is the most dominant color of the painting as it fills the background and is the color of the table itself. It makes the composition a little more “cute” since pink in America is a feminine color, but since the hue is flesh-like it also brings a sense of uneasiness. Another big thing to notice is the sense of spacing; objects are heavily cluttered on the table, and there are other elements that are squeezed into the composition, but the bottom is empty. I think the use of space is impactful because it makes you want to spend more time looking at each object individually.
    Now, working from left to right and top to bottom of the composition, there is a window with a short green shade. The window is filled with the color black, so it must mean it is dark outside where the painting is taking place. Next to the small window is a light bulb that does not look lit, but there is a small circular shape painted on the table that could indicate a reflection of light. There is a pull chain in which to turn the light bulb on and off. Below the window appears to be a large nail lying down on the table. The size of it is huge, I almost thought it was a soup ladle. On the right, there appear to be irons or weights with an odd looking book in the middle. This book is arguably the focal point as there is an eye and matching eyebrow in the center of it and stands out the most. It looks creepy, especially with the fleshy pink color. On the right most part, there is a nail embedded in the table with what looks like a streak of blood trailing behind it on the left. For the second row of objects on the table, there are a stack of books, a pair of shoes with both soles facing the viewer, what looks to be cloth stained with some sort of pigment, and an ashtray full of used cigarettes with one still lit, teetering on the right ledge.
    Looking at it with no context, it looks like a messy table of an artist who may leave something on the table and forget about its location in the future. It looks crowded and a bit confusing, however I think it is impactful. I like looking at the different objects scattered across the table especially since the style is quite interesting. There are no harsh black lines to establish shape, instead the colors of the objects themselves do. Everything is quite rounded off (i.e. the corners of the book with the eye, the irons/weights, the tip of the nail, etc.) There is nothing sharp looking or “in your face” in the composition. The use of space is pretty interesting as well since the top is crowded as the bottom is empty. This could be a way to interpret perspective for the table being flat. This is executed pretty weird, but it is good for the time it was painted in.
    Overall, I really like this painting. I think it is very inspiring for other artists to try a different style and experiment with other colors. In modern days, we think that the more color we use, the more convincing a piece will be, when less can be more impactful. This is definitely a piece I recommend to see, especially for any aspiring painters. It is whimsical and eye catching, so I would love to see it in person one day if possible.

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  3. (This is a combined essay for ART 434 and ART 477)

    Jacqueline Garcia
    Robert Tracy
    ART 434—1001/ART 477—1002
    October 8, 2020
    The Walter L. Dodge House
    I have decided to choose the Walter L. Dodge House designed by Irving Gill. Upon viewing it, I felt that it was a great example of a balance between architecture and art. It was a structure of innovation. It pushed the possibilities of what a house can offer. Being ahead of it its time, it has influenced the future of Southern California homes’ style. As Julia Morgan said, “Never turn down a job because you think it’s too small; you don’t know where it can lead.” I believe that if Gill had never taken the commission to design the Dodge House, homes in Los Angeles would look very different from what they are now. As an artist, I also see the house as an infinite canvas, not limited to just the frame of the house. “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable” (Clyfford Still). The way Gill constructed the house allowed for so many outside factors to affect how we view the house and the space around it.
    As I stated above, the Dodge House was ahead of its time. The house was filled with new innovations, such as a kitchen sick garbage disposal and a car wash garage; a house meant for the future. Aside from the technological innovations, visually, it was also ahead of its time. Its sleek, geometric design broke away from traditional and historical American architecture. As I look it at the images of the home, I see a blend between modernism and Spanish influence. It is very geometric in its structure. It’s as if Gill was given a large scale wooden block toy set, well in this case concrete blocks, and meticulously placed them together to construct this minimal yet very thought out structure. If I saw a child build this with their toy blocks, I would think that I just came across a child prodigy. We can really see hints of Spanish Mission style throughout the entire home. Even with the cubist stacks, the house has an asymmetrical façade. To soften the structure’s sharp edges, there are arches placed both in the interior and exterior of the house. On the exterior, we see repeating arches on the patio and porch areas. At certain angles one could imagine they are looking at the setting of a Renaissance painting with the abundance of arches placed throughout the house. It’s this balance of modernism and Spanish mission that we now see spread throughout Greater Los Angeles. What started off as just a commission for a millionaire, led to a shift in modern design. The Dodge House was really like the blueprint for future Los Angeles homes.
    Looking at how minimalistic the house was kept, how white blankets the walls, I couldn’t help but think of the house as a canvas. But the way the structure is formed, it feels like an ever-expanding canvas, not limited to edges of the home. Gill skillfully designed this house with California weather in mind. There are many outside factors play with the structure of the house. I can imagine as the sun rises and makes its way across the sky, the light hits the house in different angles. This leaves long extending shadows that are created by the sharp edges and the arches. These shadows go past the “canvas,” but I still see it as a part of the architecture, a part of the art. Then there’s the windows and the skylights. These for me act as miniature canvases. And while their shapes are closed, I still see them as infinite canvases. When looking through them from the interior of the house, the outside world becomes the art. As you walk through the halls, your angle on viewing the window changes. So as you pass by a window you get new viewpoints of the exterior. I feel that what also made it infinite is the fact that the outside can be ever-changing. Weather changes and seasonal changes give the viewer something new every time. The landscape of the property can also change and grow. I think the architecture of the house was a canvas just asking to find its subject matter.
    Overall, the architecture of the house is art in and of itself. Art at times is about innovation, it can be about creating new artistic movements. And that’s what the Dodge house did. It’s part of the reason on why Greater Los Angeles looks the way it does; there is an abundance of Spanish mission, yet modern styled homes in Southern California. In addition, its blank walls, its arches, and windows allowed for the outside world to become a part of the art, asking them to join their canvas. It absorbed California into its walls, windows and arches. The Dodge house really proved to be a perfect blend of architecture and art.

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  4. Rebecca Isacoff
    Art 477 and Art 434
    10/01/2020
    Writing Assignment Two

    “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” (Clyfford Still)

    All forms of art use several different techniques to create a complete composition that speaks to both the audience and the artist. To the outside eye it may appear like only one type of paint, one technique of brush stroke, or even one light source helped to accomplish the final piece of work, when this is simply the opposite of what art is. Art is the spirit of the multiple techniques and years of practice and experience that is put into the piece to create a body of work.
    Artists are often taught that each element of a painting, photograph, sculpture, etc. are used to convey a message to the audience. These elements of design should be used together to create a final, cohesive image that speaks to both the artist and the audience. Clyfford Still stated that, “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” This is how every artist should view their work as they progress towards a finished piece. While color can be used to invoke emotions and direct the eye toward the brighter and darker parts of a painting or photograph, it should not be solely relied upon to evoke emotion. The same can be said for any element of design.
    An example of this can be seen is Lee Kresner’s Noon. The abstract painting uses texture, the layering of shapes, and a full range of colors to create the final image. The spirit of the artist can be seen in the work with the complexity of the abstract design. Not just one element of design is being used to portray an image or an idea, but several. Color becomes a trait that confronts the viewer while working hand in hand with the shapes to allow the eyes to follow the patterns. This is the essence of what Clyfford Still meant by “I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.”
    Kresner was not known for being a feminist. As Robert Hughes stated, “a
    domineering fuchsia that raps hotly on the eyeball at fifty paces, is aggressive, confrontational; and when her line evokes Eros, its grace is modified by a rough, improvisatory movement, a distrust of quick visual acceptance” when referring to the color pink and how it was used in Noon. Pink was used not as simply a color, but a tool to work with the other aspects of design that Kresner decided to use within the work itself. The confrontational colors work well with the swirling, repetitive textures and shapes that stare back at the viewer with a living fire.
    These same ideologies about the elements of design can be seen in architecture. As Julia Morgan stated, “Architecture is a visual art, and the buildings speak for themselves.” Architecture evokes these same concepts when it comes to color and shape. Gothic architecture is a prime example of this through its flying buttresses and steeply pointed archways. These complex shapes create a sense of life within the architecture itself that would otherwise be lost.
    Architecture uses shapes primarily to show this “living spirit” that Still mentions. The surroundings of the buildings and structures are what “fuse” together to create a sense of life within this form of work. Simple buildings can become homes and hospitals or monumental achievements because of the way the shapes and designs work together with colors and their surroundings to evoke a sense of life in the work itself. This is the essence of art that many experience without even knowing it. When looking at a building and the way the light reflects off the panels or how the window lights illuminate in the night are the blood and bones of the building that create this living spirit.
    As an artist, or even an architecture, it is important to convey the essence of what art is in the work that is produced. Art is something that cannot be tamed and changes relentlessly with a fierce spirit, much like its artists. It is important for all the different aspects of design to work together to create a piece of work no matter the medium.

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  5. (this is a combined essay for ART 434 and ART 477)
    Jacqueline Garcia
    Robert Tracy
    ART 434—1001/ART 477—1002
    October 8, 2020
    The Walter L. Dodge House
    I have decided to choose the Walter L. Dodge House designed by Irving Gill. Upon viewing it, I felt that it was a great example of a balance between architecture and art. It was a structure of innovation. It pushed the possibilities of what a house can offer. Being ahead of it its time, it has influenced the future of Southern California homes’ style. As Julia Morgan said, “Never turn down a job because you think it’s too small; you don’t know where it can lead.” I believe that if Gill had never taken the commission to design the Dodge House, homes in Los Angeles would look very different from what they are now. As an artist, I also see the house as an infinite canvas, not limited to just the frame of the house. “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable” (Clyfford Still). The way Gill constructed the house allowed for so many outside factors to affect how we view the house and the space around it.
    As I stated above, the Dodge House was ahead of its time. The house was filled with new innovations, such as a kitchen sick garbage disposal and a car wash garage; a house meant for the future. Aside from the technological innovations, visually, it was also ahead of its time. Its sleek, geometric design broke away from traditional and historical American architecture. As I look it at the images of the home, I see a blend between modernism and Spanish influence. It is very geometric in its structure. It’s as if Gill was given a large scale wooden block toy set, well in this case concrete blocks, and meticulously placed them together to construct this minimal yet very thought out structure. If I saw a child build this with their toy blocks, I would think that I just came across a child prodigy. We can really see hints of Spanish Mission style throughout the entire home. Even with the cubist stacks, the house has an asymmetrical façade. To soften the structure’s sharp edges, there are arches placed both in the interior and exterior of the house. On the exterior, we see repeating arches on the patio and porch areas. At certain angles one could imagine they are looking at the setting of a Renaissance painting with the abundance of arches placed throughout the house. It’s this balance of modernism and Spanish mission that we now see spread throughout Greater Los Angeles. What started off as just a commission for a millionaire, led to a shift in modern design. The Dodge House was really like the blueprint for future Los Angeles homes.
    Looking at how minimalistic the house was kept, how white blankets the walls, I couldn’t help but think of the house as a canvas. But the way the structure is formed, it feels like an ever-expanding canvas, not limited to edges of the home. Gill skillfully designed this house with California weather in mind. There are many outside factors play with the structure of the house. I can imagine as the sun rises and makes its way across the sky, the light hits the house in different angles. This leaves long extending shadows that are created by the sharp edges and the arches. These shadows go past the “canvas,” but I still see it as a part of the architecture, a part of the art. Then there’s the windows and the skylights. These for me act as miniature canvases. And while their shapes are closed, I still see them as infinite canvases. When looking through them from the interior of the house, the outside world becomes the art. As you walk through the halls, your angle on viewing the window changes. So as you pass by a window you get new viewpoints of the exterior. I feel that what also made it infinite is the fact that the outside can be ever-changing. Weather changes and seasonal changes give the viewer something new every time. The landscape of the property can also change and grow. I think the architecture of the house was a canvas just asking to find its subject matter.
    Overall, the architecture of the house is art in and of itself. Art at times is about innovation, it can be about creating new artistic movements. And that’s what the Dodge house did. It’s part of the reason on why Greater Los Angeles looks the way it does; there is an abundance of Spanish mission, yet modern styled homes in Southern California. In addition, its blank walls, its arches, and windows allowed for the outside world to become a part of the art, asking them to join their canvas. It absorbed California into its walls, windows and arches. The Dodge house really proved to be a perfect blend of architecture and art.

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  6. Aundie Megan Soriano
    Professor Robert Tracy
    Art 477 sec 1002
    29 September 2020
    Second Opinion / Position Writing Assignment

    Artist/ Painting: Barnett Newman, Onement I, 1948
    Quote: “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” (Barnett Newman)

    Barnett Newman was a very admirable man and an idealist who never stopped chasing to find answers to his own work. Although his work was heavily criticized and rejected by his peers and critics earlier on, he later became the father figure to minimalist artists. I think his overall journey is what really wheeled me into looking into his works and the one that stuck out to me was the Onement I, 1948. Newman’s quote, “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality,” ties deeply with all his pieces as they weren’t really acknowledged for a time, but became something worthy of taking a second look after some time. I think that throughout Newman’s journey, he focused on self-discovery in which he found explanations towards why he painted something the way he did. What interested me to look further into the Onement I was Newman’s curiosity and self-discovery. To read that he spent about eight months to fully understand his own work made me more curious and attracted to the piece. I think it’s also interesting to know that he was associated with Jackson Pollock and even Pollock was not on board with the pieces Newman created just yet. In times when his work wasn’t as popular, he believed in them the most and understood them in a way that isn’t so obvious to the viewer’s eyes.

    By first glance, Onement I strongly captures one’s attention by the striking red line that divides the canvas. Newman identifies this narrow vertical line that separates the canvas as the zip, which runs along the canvas to create a sense of movement. Although the zip creates this obvious divide, it also creates a connection between the two sides. The red line sort of acts like the fine line between the two and ties them together. To the visible eye, one can see that the red is emphasized and reins to have hierarchy within the piece due to the high contrast with its dark counterparts. However, there is a balance between the two as the darker counterparts fill in more of the canvas that makes it feel more like a whole.

    Looking more closely, one can also see that the darker counterparts are layered on top of the initial red filled canvas. The strokes of the paint were aimed to perfectly create solid colors, but some of the red still seeps out, which draws my attention away from the red line. Personally, I feel the connection of this piece having to deal with the nature of life as it reminds me of a lifeline or that sort of idea about the light in the darkness. When I think about those ideas of a small light illuminating in the dark, it reminds me of hope and how every individual can have the toughest times but still find a way out. When I look at the painting I read it from top to bottom, as the faint paint strokes lead me out of the canvas. This can lead to ideas of the beginning to the end of life. Compared to his other paintings, this one feels more natural and raw as it isn’t just a straight line. The line has more character to it that makes me think of one’s struggles. No life is ever perfect, but one will always make it through the end.

    Ultimately, the Onement I is a powerful piece that can’t be easily comprehended. Most of my thoughts about this piece barely touched the surface and were only observing what can be seen. I think that this piece speaks more than what it shows and I feel that knowing Barnett Newman needing eight months to figure his own piece can only mean that the viewer will take twice as long if it isn’t spelled out to them. However, I do think that the piece does speak to the viewer and can bring out ideas of life as it did for me. Again, I think Newman’s journey in his work was what led me to wonder about this piece. Oftentimes, there are reasons before one does anything, but there are those moments where the body just moves by itself.

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  7. Brianna Varner
    Robert Tracy – ART 477
    8 October 2020

    Individualism within Warhol’s 1967 Self-Portrait
    “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” (Barnett Newman)

    Looking at art has always been an individual’s experience—our feelings, our personal story, everything that makes us “us”, gets included when we examine artwork. Individuality within art, whether done by the artist or is being seen by a critic or viewer, has tendencies of self-insertion, whether we intend to or not. An artist may unintentionally put themselves into a piece without realizing or meaning to, while a viewer could easily see themselves as the central focus, or at the very least, relate to the central focus of the piece. While certain cultures and ideas may express the concern of “too much” individuality in some cases, in fear of shame and not being like the others—which is something we can especially see here in the Americas, where we encourage individuality, but not “too much”. Someone that may portray that idea of individuality while also creating a space for people to insert their own self or ideas into their work is Andy Warhol. While he has many works that provide interesting introspections on individuality in the celebrity world, we do not see many pieces that directly involve his own personal individuality. And so, we’ll be examining “Self-Portrait” by Andy Warhol from 1967, a piece that’s very simple, but it reaches into our idea of what individuality within art means.

    As previously mentioned, an important idea to think of here is our definition of “self”, and how we might insert ourselves into art that may not even be intended to us. Of course, this definition of “self” can be incredibly loose. This could mean that we are empathetic to the eyes we see in a painting, connecting to it in a way that we feel like only we understand. Another way would be directly relating to someone in a painting, someone engaging in an activity and the viewer understanding, or relating to that activity in some sense. They may not have ever done it themselves, but it resonates with them. While this is not a direct correlation to the class, this particular artist comes to mind with this idea–Artemisia Gentileschi, a woman artist in the 17th century who painted a very grotesque interpretation of “Judith Slaying Holofernes”, and an upsetting painting of “Susanna and the Elders”. Her paintings, while not everyone can relate to them, many women in recent times relate to the women within the paintings, feeling connected to their struggle with dealing with many societal disadvantages. Now that we have some sort of idea of the “self” and how people connect to it, we can begin to go into Andy Warhol’s self-portrait and how his own personal individualism is shown, and how the viewer’s “self” is inserted into it.

    Most interestingly about Andy Warhol is that self-portraits were never his main objective or subject matter in his paintings, they were typically other people. Of course, this isn’t to say that some sense of his own self was not inserted in these paintings in some way, but they were not the main point of his paintings. In his own personal self-portrait, he represented himself as he does any other portrait that he does, through many colored variations and repetition of himself. While his other portraits tend to show the full face, and most importantly, a full view of the eyes, we find that Warhol’s self-portrait has only one eye truly visible, but just barely. The eyes are one of the most important things when looking at a person in a painting, and the lack of them can easily make any viewer uncomfortable, or unable to “read” the portrait portrayed. What does this mean for Warhol’s self-portrait? Is it an implication of his distance from the viewer and how the viewer cannot relate to him or have his vision? Is it a subconscious attempt at making sure that he keeps his personal self, and others cannot relate to it? Perhaps it could also be his own individualism showing, making him different from all the other portraits he’s made. This self-portrait, despite being at the very definition of individualism in theory, manages to make questions rise about what it means to be an individual within the art world. Does it mean making yourself relatable to the audience and making individuals see your individualism as their own—or does it mean embracing your individualism to the point where people are unable to connect at the most central point of the soul, at the eyes?

    Warhol’s individualism in his portraits is always shown through his unique style, color, and personal introspections. But in his self-portrait, we see that the viewer may have a hard time relating to it on a personal level, and may have different interpretations of him as a person simply based upon the fact that he took the time to make sure his eyes were not fully visible in the portrait. His future self-portraits would show his eyes much more often, which helps the viewer relate to him as they see their “self” through his eyes, but this self-portrait of his was something that interested me. Warhol intended for it to look “anonymous”, and in the end, I believe he managed to achieve that—all while showing that he is an individual, but perhaps doesn’t have a self for the viewer to relate to. We all have different ways to explore ourselves and find out our individualities, whether that means looking through a painting and realizing your own struggles, or looking at a vague figure of an artist’s portrait and struggling to understand why you can’t relate to someone—maybe we cannot always find relativity with others, and that can be a way to find our individualism.

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  8. Hannah Rath
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    ART 477/677 Section 1002
    8, October 2020
    Second Writing Assignment
    “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” (Barnett Newman)
    I chose the above quote because I am usually very much inspired to create art from what I see from other artists. I will see a piece of art that really speaks to me and, like a snap of the fingers, instantly, I want to create something that really shows myself and what I am into. I want to share my uniqueness and show that I am not ordinary.
    I chose the piece, ph-385 by Clyfford Still. This painting was created in 1949 in San Francisco, California, and was made using oil on canvas. The dimensions of the piece are 105 ½ x 81 in. (268.0 x 205.7 cm). I chose this piece because it inspires me to create. It has a sort of dark, demonic feeling to it that is one of my favorite styles.
    The piece seems to be painted using predominately bright red, a rusty brownish red, black, with specks of white. The bright red is used for the background which in the uppermost part of the painting makes it look like the red is being used for the sky. While in the lowermost part of the painting, the bright red seems like it could be showing fire, especially looking at the shape of the bright red being used in the bottom right-hand corner since it has a very jagged and pointy shape that is very similar to fire.
    The black that is being used in the painting looks like figures who look like demons. Each figure looks like they have wings, and some are flying in the sky. Each figure looks like they are in motion and moving at varying speeds. Such as the big figure in the lower center of the image seems to be walking at a slow pace because they are seen as having more detail than the figures above it who seem to be moving at a faster pace and because of this, they are less detailed.
    The rusty brownish-red color seems to be used as shadowing behind each figure or even architecture that is in the further background, so they are not very detailed. This color seems to have a smoky texture, giving more of the impression of being shadows to the black demonic figures.
    The specks of white in the painting seem to draw the eye to each figure since every figure has some bit of white detail on it and the white stands out against the darker colors being used. The white could represent something important on the figures such as a piece of clothing/jewelry or a specific object. The white in some places has a bit of other colors in it such as orange and yellow and one part of the image, specifically in the upper left-hand side, a bit of blue. There are very small specks of white that are not on the figures that look like there were sprayed onto the canvas. I feel like these specks make the painting feel a bit fuller and more complete with a bit of extra detail and texture which helps add a bit of depth to the piece and not seem too flat.

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  9. Artwork Referenced: Number 2, 1949 – Clyfford Still

    Quote Referenced: “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable” – Clyfford Still

    Background: An exploration of Clyfford Still’s thought process in the creation of “Number 2” in 1949 on the topic of War post World War II in response to critic’s perspective on Still and “New American Painting”.

    From the Spoils of War

    She speaks to me, red, in a condescending tone.
    Murdered across all European influence,
    Is this what we call New American painting?

    For this you are right,
    It is not new. It is not American. It is not American.
    It is human.

    There are limits to believing we can aim to show war stopped at a glance
    By a frame’s edge.

    This is only in small compass to the spoils of war.
    There are deeper levels.
    Formed with jagged lines like raging wildfire
    And shades of bloodshed covering layers of a darkness black.

    For this you are not ready,
    This is what remains of Jewish heritage.
    This is forever ingrained into German land.
    This is Nazi Red.

    Here our culture echoes.
    Sensitive to Europe yes,
    But more sensitive to life.

    To tell me there is no spiritual flight,
    When it is war that keeps human from flying.

    As artists we must become pilot.
    Use canvas as wings,
    Our brush as engine,
    And color as fuel to guide us into a better tomorrow.

    It is important we paint blotches of light between the dark,
    To remind ourselves,
    That it is not all evil.

    To think our work is stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable.

    Humanity she speaks to me, red, in a condescending tone,
    Saying there is so much work to be done.

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  10. Beau Capanna
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    Art 477-677 Section 1002
    October 6th, 2020
    Writing Assignment 2

    “Number 2” by Clyfford Still, 1949

    For my second writing assignment I went with the artist/painter Clyfford Still, who was one of the leading figures of the Abstract Expressionists era who took rather powerful approaches towards painting during his time. The quote I chose was also by Still, “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” (Clyfford Still). This quote stuck out to me because it means more about the full idea of an image, or piece of art rather than just the fundamentals and technicalities that people notice in the art.
    Clyfford Still’s painting, “Number 2”, consists of a red canvas contrasting with another hue of red. These forms create washy patterns that seem sporadic yet almost as a flame. Within the more middle parts of these darker hued reds or hints of black paint. These black and white additions of paint bring the piece more depth and create more of a 3-D space that gives the viewer more dimensions to work with, as if the composition is coming out towards the audience. Motion is seen with these apparent flames and brings a great composition by Still.
    Leading into the quote, Still expresses how he never wanted his work to be viewed as “technical achievements” and have viewers and his audience to stand there and admire his work being professional. How one shape reacts with another, or how there may be perfect lighting. Like my assessment in the previous paragraph, that is exactly what Still didn’t want people to do. To dissect his work and wonder how he accomplished it.
    Overall, Clyfford Still never believe in admiring a work of art and wondering why or how the artist achieved certain techniques in a work of art, but to simply gaze into it, relax, and understand the feeling of all the objects in the composition and how they are in harmony. Many people look art compositions and nit-pick piece by piece what they see in the technical world of art; lighting, use of color, perspective, value, texture, unity, proportion etc.. The main thing from this quote that Still is getting at is to not view something beautiful in technical achievements, rather view something beautiful as a harmonious sight that brings a certain feeling to someone as they admire it.
    After reading each quote, this one stuck out to me the most because I am a firm believe with it. Sure every piece of art may be graded upon how many fundamentals of art are forced into the canvas and if they work together or not, but sometimes it is nice to just walk around a gallery or see a work of art and view it and feel something genuine from whatever that art gives you.

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  11. Katie Castro
    Art 477 1002
    Robert Tracy
    4 October 2020
    Opinion Paper 2
    Dollar Sign (9) by Andy Warhol is a classic example of how artists integrate more than one element of design into their work. Made in 1982, the image is large at 40×32 inches. The opaque blue/teal background is home to nine dollar signs in three rows and three columns. Each sign is a different color and is tilted a little to the left or right. Andy Warhol’s pop art style is apparent in the repeating image and changing colors. This artwork also says a lot about the time period it was created in and the American people.
    The first major principle of design I notice is the balance in this work through the mirrored, symmetrical image. Each dollar sign takes up approximately the same amount of room. Their even weight makes the balance pleasing to look at and glides the eye smoothly across the canvas. The only thing throwing me off is his signature located on the bottom left/middle of the canvas. The piece is high in contrast. The blue background makes each sign pop. But not only is that the only aspect that provides the contrast. Each sign is made up of two or three colors that allow for dimension to truly be made. The obvious principle of design also included is pattern. In a 3×3 organization, you can image this image expanded and continued!
    Andy Warhol’s work is truly unique. This was the first time in history that the world was exposed to art like this! Andy found a way to make all aspects of life into art. No longer could the rich be the only ones who enjoyed it. In other paintings like his famous Campbell Soup, Andy uses every day generic objects to simplify the way people like art.
    He often was able to show his ideas of consumerism in his art. Dollar Sign (9) did this well. The American population is often so focused on money and material items, so Andy gave them what they love and this might be why the image is such a success.
    Andy Warhol started as a consumer ad designer and we can see some of that style push through into his paintings. His art has always been recognizable for what it is. He was able to take any symbol or object and turn it into an incredible piece. “I just paint things I always thought were beautiful, things you use every day and never think about”(Andy Warhol). He did this through faces like Marilyn Monroe and objects like a Brillo box! I think the key component that was able to turn these ordinary objects into art was the passion that he had. He was able to see beauty in things that people usually don’t look twice at. In a way there is irony to it! This brings in the quote by Barnett Newman, “Painting, like passion, is a living voice.” Andy Warhol used his inner voice in his art by showing people the beauty in every day things.

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  12. Alexander Lopez
    ART 477-1002
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    October 6, 2020
    Opinion Paper 2

    I initially took an interest in art when I would randomly scribble a variety of shapes and patterns in my notes during grade school. At the time it was something that I did so carelessly, I never thought that scribbling random shapes and patterns would lead me to pursuit a career in the art field. When I first started taking art classes in middle and high school it felt so nonchalant. I would learn the fundamentals of art here and there and applied what I had learned to a drawing or painting that I created. Art was so casual at the time; art was something I revered as fun. After I graduated high school, I was unsure what the next step was, and ultimately, I decided that I wanted to aim for a bachelor’s in fine arts while I was in college. I did not take any art classes in college until 3 semesters in, I wanted to finish all my prerequisite classes and have the latter half of my college semesters dedicated to art classes. I had this plan in mind, however, I stopped doing art for a while in order to focus on my studies in other classes. When I was finally able to take art classes I was in for a surprise. The classes felt a lot less casual, there was a lot more competition between me and my classmate, the professors were a lot stricter when it came to the criteria of art presented, and there was a noticeably large skill gap between the newcomers and veterans of the art field. I had become anxious because I had been out of the game for so long, but eventually I got back into the groove of making art. Competing with other students while at the same time trying to impress my professors became stressful. Art was starting to become less fun and a little more arduous. Everyone strived to become great as if they wanted to become a Renaissance master, yet they all wanted to be unique in their own way. I felt lost in the crowd, I wanted my fundamentals to be polished and sharp, but I also wanted to recapture that feeling when art was fun and casual like scribbling in a notebook. American artist Barnett Newman stated, “When painters feel the need to make a shift toward self-discovery, they turn to black and white for a time.” At this point in time I felt like I needed to find my own self-discovery through my artistic endeavors.
    The work of art that really resonated with me in the textbook, art since 1900 (volume 2), by Hal Foster was François Morellet’s oil painting on wood titled, 4 random distributions of squares using the numbers 31-41-59-26-53-58-97-93 (page 561), done in 1958. The series of paintings are so simple. The work consists of 4 wooden canvases covered in white paint. Placed randomly on the canvases is one to two neatly painted black squares. The work and the concept of the painting is so simple, yet I could not help but smile upon seeing it. This is one of those works of art that makes people say, “I could have done that” upon viewing it. François Morellet was a minimalist and a conceptual artist, so a piece like this would make sense for him to make. Although the piece is very simple in nature, it took him an entire lifetime of study in the field of art in order to create a piece like this. François Morellet learned the fundamentals of art, but this piece shows me his self-discovery in minimalist painting. I don’t just enjoy the subject matter and simplicity of the painting, but also the composition and awareness of the piece. The piece is the most complete in a series. If you take any 1 of the 4 paintings out or just look at 1 of the paintings in isolation then, to me, it would feel incomplete. All the paintings work well off each other, in a series they have balance, a good use of negative space, and each black square has a feeling of weight and density. Another thing that I enjoy about this piece that is sometimes overlooked when it comes to art is the title. The title of this piece is 4 random distributions of squares using the numbers 31-41-59-26-53-58-97-93, it’s one of the longest and most literal titles I have ever seen in a piece of art. There is no symbolic or deeper meaning in the title, it’s just straight to the point. I appreciate how straight forward François Morellet was when naming this piece. This work brings me back to a simpler time when I drew shapes and patterns in my notes for fun, a memory of my youth when art was nonchalant. There is a certain charm to this art, it’s so simple, and straight forward that I can’t help but like it.
    I am a semester off from graduating college with a bachelor’s in fine arts. I feel glad, yet melancholy now that the ride is almost over. I find Barnett Newman’s quote relatable in my current position with art. I feel like I have learned the fundamentals and have started to experiment, in a sense shift towards my own self-discovery. I’ve also been doing works primarily in black and white. François Morellet’s painting on wood canvas titled, 4 random distributions of squares using the numbers 31-41-59-26-53-58-97-93, has brought me back to the nostalgic days of drawing simple shapes in my notes to pass the time. However, Morellet showcases his artistic knowledge through his understanding of composition, use of space and weight throughout the piece. Art had started to become stressful for me, but Morellet’s painting and other minimalist works have reminded me that I can create fun and simple art, while still retaining my wealth of artistic knowledge that I have accumulated throughout the years.

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  13. Andrea Lugo
    Art 434-1001 & Art 477-1002
    Instructor Robert Tracy
    October 8, 2020
    Art 434-1001 & 477-1002: Combined Writing Assignment Two
    The quote I chose is “Painting, like passion, is a living voice” (Barnett Newman). Paintings and all other arts are ways for artists to express themselves, and to illustrate their artistic style and individuality. All the work, materials, inspiration, and processes that goes into creating a work of art gives the artist a voice. For artists, whether it is the process or the product, their artwork is their voice. An artist’s work is how they speak, and introduce their thoughts, emotions, and ideas to others. It depends on the viewer and how they interpret the artist’s work, to try to understand what they think the artist is saying.
    One work of art that caught my interest was The Stowaway Peers Out at the Speed of Light from the Speed of Light Series by James Rosenquist, which was produced in 2001 and painted with oil on canvas. The painting reminds me of Pollock’s work, where it can be seen as having no beginning or end and can be interpreted differently depending on the viewer, but this painting consists of a few focal points. The artist, Rosenquist, is able to create a mixture or balance of abstraction and representation within The Stowaway painting. This painting first caught my interest due to the dynamic and contrasting colors. The right side of the painting consists of hectic lines and primary colors, while the left is composed of distorted forms with light hues. At first the left side reminds me if I was driving through a tunnel and watching the lights and billboards go by, and gives me a sense of calm, whereas the right-side sort of feels like a range of emotions due to the greys and intersecting lines. The image is unique towards every viewer and makes them question what the artist was experiencing or feeling and can represent a variety of meanings, whereas it mainly evokes a sense of calm for myself.
    The middle section appears to be an intersection of the left and right halves, as if the colors and thoughts are intertwining and becoming distorted within the middle. The painting captures the gesture of speed of light quite well, from what I perceive when I think of viewing light at high speeds. Objects tend to become blurred, and then lines and forms become abstract rather than organic/representational, which Rosenquist achieves within this painting. It appears that the artist is manipulating line and color to create an illusion of a tunnel and using abstract forms, to illustrate as if the audience is viewing a landscape through high speeds. The vibrant colors and forms remind me of a kaleidoscope, with the left side focusing on more circular forms and the right focusing on angular gestures. The painting gives me a sense of calm, yet chaos at the same time depending which section of the piece I am looking at. While the painting makes me respond in a certain way, I wonder as to what the artist was truly feeling and experiencing when creating this piece, and to what his intentions were.
    The quote “Painting, like passion, is a living voice,” reminds me of the artwork from the Speed of Light Series by Rosenquist (Barnett Newman). There is such a strong dynamic and wide range of colors within the work that every time I view the painting, I notice something different each time. The painting appears to be a rush of the artist’s thoughts and emotions. The work of art makes you want to continue to look at it from far and up-close, and depending which angle or spot you view from, you may interpret a different emotion. When observing the left side of the painting, I feel a sense of serene due to the light pinks and yellows, and how the image reminds me of driving through a tunnel on a road trip. Then in the middle it is like an explosion of emotions and thoughts. As if it is a sort of a confusion of thoughts because of the darker hues and more complex lines.
    In addition, Rosenquist’s The Stowaway Peers Out at the Speed of Light, reminds me of the freeways in the Greater Los Angeles area. One of the quotes from the James Rosenquist PowerPoint discusses how people’s visions are altered when looking out a window at various speeds. Most individuals associate Los Angeles with their freeways, and when looking out the car window on the freeways, we tend to admire the architecture, billboards, and art that we view. Depending on the speed, the forms we see changes, and everyone experiences different observations. The Speed of Light Series looks as if you are driving on the freeway and looking at the passing buildings, billboards, and art, and there is so much going on that each viewer will notice something different about each work of art. The Stowaway painting is also a large-scale image, similarly to the scale of a billboard resembling the distorted view of the billboards one might see while driving high speeds on the Los Angeles freeway. While driving on the freeway, we are observing the different forms of the buildings and art at higher speeds, making them appear to have less representational and more abstract forms, similar to the speed of light depiction in the Rosenquist painting.
    Overall, The Stowaway Peers Out at the Speed of Light by James Rosenquist represents how “Painting, like passion, is a living voice” (Newman). The Stowaway Peers Out at the Speed of Light is a large-scale work of art that attracts the viewer from all distances and allows for the audience to interpret a variety approaches of the artist’s intentions and meanings of the painting. The painting is a large gesture of Rosenquist’s thoughts and voice, and it is up to the viewer on what they think the artist is trying to say. Art is how artists communicate with other artists and viewers. Their work conveys their emotions, thoughts, and ideas, and gives them a voice, and this can be seen within Rosenquist’s paintings, especially in The Stowaway Peers Out as the Speed of Light.

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  14. Patrick Manabat
    Robert Tracy
    Art 477
    October 8, 2020

    The Flame (Second Writing Assignment)

    Clyfford Still is a sort of artist that challenges my thinking when I look at art. When I see his work, I often think of the most basic things and objects that I’m sure mostly anybody can point out; however, the more I think about his work, the more it speaks to me and the more I see into the work itself. Clyfford Still’s piece called “Number 2,” much like his many other works, embodies this same level of thought. First, I see the red, the black, the flames, the tints and shades that make the work what it is, yet in accordance to Still himself, “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” Looking at this quote I realized that there is more to the work than what I just physically see, yet I still wasn’t too sure myself. What could it possibly be if what I physically see was not to his intention?

    Thinking more about Still’s “Number 2” I started to see more of a sort of narrative form before me. The painting forged itself into a sort of blood sky devoid of life while giving a strong sense of foreboding. The reason I have come to such a conclusion may be due the influence of media. For example, this sort of scenery may be common in things such as books, comics, movies, or video games to set a darker tone in what is taking place. The white areas can represent the stars above and the black figures can represent the burning sky in place of the fluffy clouds. Coincidentally this paper itself is being written on October when Halloween takes place allowing for me to be even more insightful to see such a horror. These are all little things at the end of the day, but I believe that considering what I have experienced in life, there wouldn’t be too much more for me to see rather than something as fictional or as simple as “the red and black must mean something bad.” I thankfully have not endured anything that can really bring me to another sort of conclusion for what I might see in Still’s painting, but I suppose that this sense of enthrallment is what gives the painting its meaning.

    Perhaps instead of looking at the work and trying to see something, I should look more into how it makes me feel. Spending even more time with the painting, I feel rather uneasy, but not enough to really tip me over the edge. To put it simply, it is almost as if I am one step away from disaster, like a kind of portal to the end. Though, despite all of this, I am still here; sitting comfortably in my room. It’s not like I can just jump into the scene and so I do not really sense danger, yet after staring into it for so much time it leaves me with nothing but dark thoughts. Maybe there is still more to discover within the painting? Maybe there is still more to discover within myself? To those around me? Or even of the future? These thoughts aren’t inherently pleasant to think about, but I believe that they are what make this painting have meaning to me. I have yet to discover something about me or the world around me that truly shakes me to my core and that in itself is enough for this work to have meaning beyond the paint and the screen that I look through.

    Quote: “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” (Clyfford Still)

    Artwork: Clyfford Still, Number 2, 1949

    Comment: I wrote my paper in a sort of continuous steam of thought, I felt that this allows me to express my emotions of the work more deeply.

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  15. Kylelain Corinth
    Professor Tracy
    ART 434-1001 & ART 477-1002
    8 October 2020

    Writing Assignment 2: Adam by Barnett Newman

    Barnett Newman’s work, as well as other contemporary abstract pieces, are not only linear ideas represented in artistic form. Woven into the essence of pieces such as Barnett Newman’s Adam, are an emotional experience. “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality” (Barnett Newman). The purpose of his artwork is not to just be observed as what it exists as physically, it is to view it with feeling, listening to what it tells you. There is more that lies beyond the layered colors of his work in an overwhelming and totalizing sense. Each of Newman’s pieces creates a unique space for individuals to visit. The pieces invite them to move beyond conventional notions of observing conceptual artworks, instead urging the observer to reflect on the existential qualities of a painting such as Adam. Each visitor of Adam uncovers a different meaning within the washes of paint, finding separateness and totality entirely unique to their person.

    As such, when I first truly looked at Adam I was overwhelmed by the painting’s dominance over the space in which it is inhabiting. In this case, my computer screen. Even through an electronic device, Adam seems to absorb the surrounding light and any of my immediate thoughts with it. Unlike other paintings of Newman’s that seem to jump off of the canvas reaching for you, Adam has depth. There is a darkness that tunnels into the canvas, drawing you in closer, into the piece as if I could step into the space Newman created. In this sense, the canvas was reaching for me, but it was the experience waiting for me within the painting that spoke to me through the smudged blacks and washes of red. Furthermore, the bright beams of red drew me not only into the painting but down. It appears as if there is more to be discovered beyond the end of the canvas as if there is a long drop down to the bottom of some unknown space.

    Dissimilar to other abstract works in which each movement of the artist is documented in the distinguishable splatters and lines of paint, Adam is seamless and blurred. The purpose of this piece does not appear to be solely for the act of making art. Consequently, this was not my experience of the painting. There is intentional thought that is being voiced by Newman’s works. The colors of Adam blend and blur together, the blacks with the reds turning almost burgundy or brown. Similarly, my experience of the piece was never stagnant, causing the boundaries of my thoughts and emotions to blur just as the brush strokes in Adam do. I did not have one concrete thought or feeling that I could pin down to describe this piece. My experience was initially a flood of awe and a well of feeling that rose to the surface as I delved deeper into the dark spaces of this painting, as my eyes traveled along the glowing red lines down to find red shining through the deeper colors. Consequently, it is what Newman did not physically render that holds value, that lives within, and exists as the true significance of Adam.

    Newman’s piece lacks parameters and distinguishable subject matter to guide one’s interpretation of the painting. However, the rich reds and deep browns and blacks layered together to create shadow and depth, allowing each color to be both distinguishable and anonymous. Pointedly, they are harmonious, with the red beams only serving to further complete the seamless blending of dramatic colors. In one glance I can look at the piece as a whole as if one large paintbrush was swept down the canvas to create the rich colors beyond the expressive red lines. When looking deeper, I can see the first layers of color peeking through the darker colors, as they lightly fade towards the bottom of the canvas. The attentiveness and care Newman took when rendering Adam is evident in these details.

    In the same light, architecture can speak volumes to the cultural values and significance of a time. Architecture is more than just a building or public space, it is built with a purpose and conveys a message to the surrounding community, similar to Adam. “Architecture is a visual art, and the buildings speak for themselves” (Julia Morgan). Much like abstract artists such as Newman, architects seek to voice their passions by building innovative and expressive spaces. One city that is home to many of these influential projects is Los Angeles, California. Societal values are evident in the citywide projects that take place in areas such as Los Angeles. One can follow the history of this city as it grew wider and deeper, blurring the lines of city boundaries to create Greater Los Angeles. Just as ideas start to inhabit the space of the canvas as the colors on a canvas slowly begin to take form and shape.

    Architecture can be an expression of creativity and passion that one may physically delve deeper into by stepping into the space and inhabiting it. Architecture can be solely for functional purposes or it can be designed to invoke certain feelings and reactions from individuals. I experienced a limitless in Newman’s art as I explored the space he formed and shaped. Through this limitless, Newman gave individuals the opportunity to become familiar with feelings that transcend even the physical, allowing us to understand the depth and detail of these layered colors. When I visit Los Angeles, my experience is akin to that of Adam. I am overwhelmed and excited to discover the seemingly never-ending potential the city has to offer. Greater Los Angeles is comprised of cities that fade into one another smoothly. If I look closely I can distinguish between each one, but they still are united under the larger label of Los Angeles. Newman sought to voice something of significance in these works that could not be conventionally expressed just as architects do with their creative projects.

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  16. Jeremy Miller
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    Art 477-1002
    October 8, 2020

    A Time for Discovery

    Barnett Newman developed abstract expressionist paintings that have a nuance of personal sense and discovery. As an artist, I often look to the transitions that took place at different times in Newman’s work to help me develop my own art. One of the more pivotal works by Newman is Moment, 1946, Oil paint on Canvas, found in the collection of the Tate museum.

    Barnett Newman is quoted for saying, “When painters feel the need to make a shift toward self-discovery, they turn to black and white for a time.”.

    The painting Moment, is not necessarily black and white. However, it’s pallet is extremely limited. I believe that Newman referred to a narrowing of focus to a certain element, as he did in this painting. In comparison to an appearance of wood grain in the painting, the central vertical strip is vacant. This area in the painting lacks texture, and leaves the viewer with the available space as the central component of this painting. The break appears as a geometric line, or long rectangle that is vertical and precise. It does not have texture or tone, and appears as an opening to the undertone of the canvas. A viewer could be reminded of two fence posts, or a door that is slightly open. Whatever resides in the blank space is up to the viewer to ponder. The painting creates a space in between two defined areas. This accomplishes a sentiment in a place of “discovery”, for a short time. The vertical composition is specific and may feel very different if viewed horizontally.

    The central element implies a location between two larger shapes. To me it is similar to getting ready to open a door before an important meeting or sitting on an airplane between places. Its purpose could be to allow the viewer to use the minimal space for interpretation. I imagine that in situations in between two defined events there is a brief pause that could allow one to reflect. The gap within the painting gives a viewer this type of brief, but tremendous visual concept. This break in content is so overwhelming, it pulls the gaze back when the viewer wanders left or right, and out to the corners. Neutral shades of brown or a very dull umber with a gray highlight make up the wooden plank like areas to the sides. This abstract use of space and absence of bright colors sets an ambiance. The intervals are all in rectangular shape. Newman’s abstract uses these three simple shapes to continuously focus on the narrow middle segment. The large profiles have middle tones, and highlights in the wood grain that show transparency to the ivory tint in the paintings undertone. This provides a nuance of an underpainting were the painter has not yet arrived at hues and colors.

    Newman includes his large signature in the lower right to insure his intentions. However, he leaves the central focus of this image on what he has not painted. It is worked into the image as a finished element. This element of abstraction seems to be akin to the mood of a black and white contrast painting, that remains within a time of commuting from unfinished to finished. Combined events in the composition define what appears to be a brief “moment” in between. The subject becoming whatever the viewer is able to unearth in this opening. As in abstract it is broken down into basic elements to become analyzed, and maybe reconstructed as it relates to oneself. Barnett Newman’s transition shown in Moment, takes us into his process, at the time when he made innovation within his work.

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  17. Jack Torres
    Professor Tracy
    Art 477 – 1002
    08 October 2020
    Second Writing Assignment
    Barnett Newman once said, “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” This quote strongly reflects James Rosenquist’s oil painting Learning Curves from the Time Blades Series and his distinguishable unique style as a pop artist. Rosenquist delves deep into the abstract with bursts of colors and a plethora of different lines and curves and even distorted objects we see in our everyday lives. Newman’s quote explains how a viewer like myself looked at Learning Curves and was hit with an impactful admiration of how mesmerizing the painting is the technique that must have been extinguished. Rosenquist himself must have wanted the viewers to be impacted with his work; immerse ourselves into his mind and world with how he interprets what he’s saying through his creative process.
    First thing that strikes us as the viewer is the way color is being executed into the painting. Red seems to be the main base color which strikes as wanting to come forward at the viewer since that’s what warm colors tend to do. There is a nice balance of warm and cool colors. Despite the warmer colors such as reds, orange, and yellow being dominant, the bits of cool colors like green, blue, and purple help keep it from being overwhelming and detect the forms we see. The contrast between the whites and blacks in the painting help distinguish them from the colors which would most likely blend into the environment and lose their importance.
    The process behind Learning Curves is very striking with all kinds of detected elements and principles but the most obvious one is how well Rosenquist is able to execute juxtaposition with his forms and lines. The background is simple and bold filled with color and lines that cross each other or curve which all have about the same weight. There are some distinguishable numbers in white in the upper left corner to separate from all the color and stand out on its own. White numbers itself show implied movement with the slight wave it comes from the top left corner into the middle. The lines of colors also show movement whether they take U-turns, curve to the side, or cross each other diagonally as if it were a hectic freeway. Each colored line has a different personality and there is neither that go into a straight line. There is a distortion in the black numbers on the left side of the painting which seem to be attached to maybe elongated gears or it could be notebook paper that was ripped off from the ridges seen. Another thing we see movement in is what seems to look like stretched bubbles that gives it a sense of this being like a fever dream.
    Aside from the variety of lines we see going in all directions, we see different forms that could tell a fever dream story of distorted numbers, letters, gears/paper, pencils, and bubbles. While chaotic and distorted, there is a nice composition and balance throughout the piece since it all blends together with the juxtaposition of overlapping forms and movement following along. What I like about this piece is the detail in what seems to be reflected light on the distorted gears that make it seem this scene has light in the background and picking up the colors in the atmosphere. Another thing about the gears is that there is a sense of rhythm with the way they are distorted and flow across the canvas starting from the left to the right side. We see about six pencils, four parallel to each other facing down towards a levitating circle with letters on them while another pencil lays across all four of the pencils. The last pencil can be seen on the right side standing up and then the bottom portion seems like it’s slowly being sucked into a vortex.
    One thing that stands out and is emphasized from the overwhelming warm colors is a capitalized letter A that has a rainbow gradient in the background that lays on the top right corner. Although the slanted circle in the middle is a warm color, the tint helps it stand out with the help of the contrasted black letters dancing around and a slight indication of reflection happening from the lines in the background. There is a nice mixture of 2D and 3D elements where 2D are the simple and bold lines and color in the background as the 3D are the pencils and bubbles.
    To conclude, Newman’s quote reflects back to Rosenquist’s unique art style to determine who it comes from without needing to know the name from first glance. Rosenquist really delves us into his world of creativity and hidden meaning with these fever-like dreams that escape reality. This type of abstraction makes it very fun to look at and try to break down the elements Rosenquist is exploiting to us to determine their meaning. His style really separates himself from other artists as this unique pop-artist who can play with visuals in distortion or combining elements that can create a whole piece into one.

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  18. Nanci Clyde
    Art 473&477(Combined Paper)
    2nd Writing Assignment
    Broken Obelisk and Cubism

    “All the art of the past rises before me, the art of all ages and all civilizations, everything becomes simultaneous, as if space had replaced time. Memories of works of art blend with affective memories, with my works, with my whole life” (Alberto Giacometti). I believe almost all art is replaced in some kind of form in the future. Like many fairytales and many art forms created thousands of years ago. We make art based on memories of the past. Letting the imagination of what happened to conquer our minds.

    For this essay, I will be talking about the Broken Obelisk by Barnett Newman, the pyramid, and a pillar. This work reminds me of rock balancing art where an artist finds numerous rocks and staking them together. They take hours or even days to finally balance all the rocks to be stationary and let the gravity do the rest. When you see it in person, it seems like it’s impossible. People do this say it is meditating and I can say the same with the Broken Obelisk. It is mind-boggling to see how that pillar is sitting on top of that pyramid. It’s not even just a rectangular pillar either. It has the same pyramid point at the bottom of the pillar making the center point one. How on earth, is that thing standing? Do they collapse when there are winds? Earthquake? I’m sure there is this pull going through that part it’s connected… or glued. That balanced form makes me want to look at it until it falls. It is oddly satisfying and surreal. I have seen many videos of balancing rocks and now I want to see how they built that sculpture.

    The balance is one thing, but the form itself tells me something about the repetition of the past. Why do we like the form pyramid so much? We have seen this from everywhere in the past. Pyramids in Egypt are one of the famous ones, but did you know there are pyramids in China too? There is something about the shape that makes us feel satisfying and that is what I feel about the Broken Obelisk. The pond below makes a mirror and that creates the effect of surrealism of the object. It can be seen like its floating. Let’s not forget about the pillar. The pillar looks like it is in ruin because of the broken end. Why did Newman decide to make the pillar broken? It does give the aesthetic of the piece. Like a pyramid, ancient. I believe this is what Newman depicts as a modern pyramid.

    “Many think that Cubism is an art of transition, an experiment which is to bring ulterior results. Those who think that way have not understood it. Cubism is not either a seed or a fetus, but an art dealing primarily with forms, and when a form is realized it is there to live its own life” (Pablo Picasso). Picasso, Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, 1910 has caught my eyes scrolling through all the PowerPoint artworks. I’ve been a fan of Picasso’s works due to his way of drawing and painting shapes. I like using shapes first to find some new ideas and it is extremely fun. The way Picasso uses squares in this painting is outstanding. The illusion and the details are what caught my eyes. It took me a second to see the portrait, but I also see ships at the bottom left. From far away, the painting looks abstract with a bunch of lines almost forming squares and triangles. The limited color palette is also very nice. Those colors give the feeling of an old fairytale book. I enjoy looking at this piece because of how detailed yet you have to find some form of mystery in it.

    Overall, I enjoyed analyzing these pieces. The Broken Obelisk by Barnett Newman is one of the interesting sculptures I have ever seen. Reminded of the balancing rock art and that fascinates me. Picasso’s work is another thing. His way of using shapes is very unique and would love to see some of his works someday. Memories of works of art blend with affective memories and when a form is realized it is there to live its own life.

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  19. Annie Lin
    Art 477

    In the early 20th century. Jackson Pollock began a new era for modern art, and it remained a question for artists to explore what they could do after him. Morris Louis is among these explorers. He discovered his own unique process and color fields, introducing another era for modern art. Saraband, painted in 1959, is one that showcases his distinctive style. Clyfford Still said: “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable.” Saraband certainly expands its existence beyond the edge of a frame.

    When first looking at the painting, the half translucent strips caught the attention. They are like folds from a window drape. The sun shines through them, creating different hues of color. The red is the hue of flowers, the green is the trees and grass, and the yellow is lands of corn and wheat. In addition, the natural, curvy lines suggest a sense of movement. As if it is on a windy day, the wind blows into the window, and the band dances up and down with rhythm. The painting also tells another story. On the sides of Saraband, the dark shades look like shadows of two men in profile view. Especially on the right side, a man is leaning toward the center, his face is cut off at the edge of the frame. The two bow-like shapes at the middle suggest the chest parts of dresses. It is a dance party, two gentlemen are politely asking two ladies for a dance. The band can also be drapery from the stage of theatre. The somber hue at the edge is reminiscent of the dark environment behind the stage. Further, There are luminent lights in the show, the viewer is seeing the light passing through the drapery when he stands behind it. In this sense, the painting served as a boundary to the other side. This creates an imagination of what is beyond the painting. With countless imaginative elements, Saraband expanded its territory beyond the edge of the frame.

    Looking more closely to the quality of Saraband, the unique technique within it is noticeable. Although Louis was secretive about his process, it still reveals its secret on the surface. Louis used magna paint as his median. Megna paint can be diluted without losing the intensity of color. That is the reason why Saraband can obtain vibrant tone and half translucent quality at the same time. In addition, when mixing with solvent, megna paint soaks into the cavans. There are noticeable textures of canvas in the painting. The roughness texture plays as a counterpart to the silky quality of the bands. It creates an unfamiliar experience to the viewer: if the viewer touches the silky surface, he will feel little grains of particles against his hand. Lastly, magna paint is resistant to aging, it won’t fade to yellow color in time. This is the reason why Saraband still vibrants vividly until now. Through the use of median, Louis made Saraband a painting that lives beyond the edge of frame

    In the end, recalling Still’s quote, “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable,” surely, a painting that is constrained by the edge would be less interesting. The frame is not only a physical boundary, but it also represents a hypothetical boundary within the artist’s mind. An artist needs to think beyond the boundary, so he or she can create meaningful work that allows the audience to wander beyond the limited territory. In a sense, a painting is no longer bound by its limit, it becomes a vast land for the audience to explore. Saraband is certainly one of the paintings that achieve beyond its limit. There are fantasies that live within. A window from a country house, a dance party, a backstage of the theatre, and many other stories are thriving within.

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  20. Annie Lin
    Art 477

    In the early 20th century. Jackson Pollock began a new era for modern art, and it remained a question for artists to explore what they could do after him. Morris Louis is among these explorers. He discovered his own unique process and color fields, introducing another era for modern art. Saraband, painted in 1959, is one that showcases his distinctive style. Clyfford Still said: “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable.” Saraband certainly expands its existence beyond the edge of a frame.

    When first looking at the painting, the half translucent strips caught the attention. They are like folds from a window drape. The sun shines through them, creating different hues of color. The red is the hue of flowers, the green is the trees and grass, and the yellow is lands of corn and wheat. In addition, the natural, curvy lines suggest a sense of movement. As if it is on a windy day, the wind blows into the window, and the band dances up and down with rhythm. The painting also tells another story. On the sides of Saraband, the dark shades look like shadows of two men in profile view. Especially on the right side, a man is leaning toward the center, his face is cut off at the edge of the frame. The two bow-like shapes at the middle suggest the chest parts of dresses. It is a dance party, two gentlemen are politely asking two ladies for a dance. The band can also be drapery from the stage of theatre. The somber hue at the edge is reminiscent of the dark environment behind the stage. Further, There are luminent lights in the show, the viewer is seeing the light passing through the drapery when he stands behind it. In this sense, the painting served as a boundary to the other side. This creates an imagination of what is beyond the painting. With countless imaginative elements, Saraband expanded its territory beyond the edge of the frame.

    Looking more closely to the quality of Saraband, the unique technique within it is noticeable. Although Louis was secretive about his process, it still reveals its secret on the surface. Louis used magna paint as his median. Megna paint can be diluted without losing the intensity of color. That is the reason why Saraband can obtain vibrant tone and half translucent quality at the same time. In addition, when mixing with solvent, megna paint soaks into the cavans. There are noticeable textures of canvas in the painting. The roughness texture plays as a counterpart to the silky quality of the bands. It creates an unfamiliar experience to the viewer: if the viewer touches the silky surface, he will feel little grains of particles against his hand. Lastly, magna paint is resistant to aging, it won’t fade to yellow color in time. This is the reason why Saraband still vibrants vividly until now. Through the use of median, Louis made Saraband a painting that lives beyond the edge of frame

    In the end, recalling Still’s quote, “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable,” surely, a painting that is constrained by the edge would be less interesting. The frame is not only a physical boundary, but it also represents a hypothetical boundary within the artist’s mind. An artist needs to think beyond the boundary, so he or she can create meaningful work that allows the audience to wander beyond the limited territory. In a sense, a painting is no longer bound by its limit, it becomes a vast land for the audience to explore. Saraband is certainly one of the paintings that achieve beyond its limit. There are fantasies that live within. A window from a country house, a dance party, a backstage of the theater, and many other stories are thriving within.

    end note: the painting, Saraband, is on page 510 from the text book. When I tried to research an online image, I found out that some version appeared to be opposite from the image in Art Since 1900. not sure why that happen. Yet, I made my opinion based on The textbook’s version. Here is a link to the similar image :https://spectatio.wordpress.com/2013/09/16/abstractions-morris-louis/

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  21. Monette Felipe
    Professor Robert Tracy
    ART 477-1002
    7 October 2020
    Opinion/Position Writing Assignment 2

    Barnett Newman once said, “Painting, like passion, is a living voice.” For many artists, painting represents a part of their relationship between themself and their art. It is a way that expresses emotions, demonstrates an artist’s beliefs, and opens a window to view a world in our own way. It’s through painting where the artist can begin to explore their own emotions and develop a relationship with art that speaks for them to the audience they wish to reach. An artist who I see has been recognized for staying true to her personal vision and using painting as her voice is abstract expressionist, Grace Hartigan. Hartigan had a distinctive visual language that influenced the development of Abstract Expressionism, placing her thoughts, feelings, and values at the forefront of her artworks. Specifically, in her artwork, When the Raven was White, she blends her own representation of abstraction and figuration through her subjects, imagery, and motifs to evoke personal emotions she felt in her life as an artist.

    When the Raven was White, was painted in a way that blended abstraction with figuration which could be seen in her reference of the figures and motifs visible on the canvas. When I see this painting, I am immediately drawn to the illustrations and how they are placed on the canvas. There are figures drawn in discrete ways that follow abstract concepts with curvy and expressive brushwork layered by various images like puzzle pieces. Hartigan enhances the images through an evocative color palette of pinks, greens, blues, black, and white that are randomly placed on the canvas. To me, this color palette can evoke intense emotions as each color suggests very different meanings when it comes to the human relationship with color symbolism, such as blue representing peace, green symbolizing growth, and pink as feminine. Although it is abstract in its form, I believe that the colors can represent the powerful emotions Hartigan experienced throughout her life, revealing to us a profound moment when she felt all kinds of emotions and figuratively, when the raven was white.

    I notice the white raven on the top left side of the canvas, along with other figures, flowers, plants, and even an ear on the top right side. The imagery in this painting is very enticing as it draws in symbolic impressions of animals. In specific, the raven is painted in white, showing soft and delicate impressions of an animal that symbolizes purity and hope. In this painting, Hartigan could be using animals and their qualities to portray an aspect of herself that reflected her intentions at the time. The intensity of the emotions she felt during the time, which could be emotional pain, can be viewed through the imagery of the raven and discrete figures surrounding it. Overall, Grace Hartigan develops this relationship with herself and her art in a way that effectively elicits a personal primacy to her vision. I think that in many ways, Hartigan does an amazing job in finding harmony in exploring the abstract nature of our emotions and representing it in aspects that are very expressive and imaginable.

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  22. Taylor Thompson
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    Art 477_1002
    October 6, 2020
    Opinion/Position Writing Assignment 2
    “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” -Barnett Newman

    For this assignment I have chosen the quote by Barnett Newman stating, “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.” This quote resonated with me because I feel like as artists we all want to have our own feeling of uniqueness in the pieces that we present. This is hard with how much is being put out by professionals and hobbyists, however there are certain people whose works are instantly recognizable. To delve deeper into this quote I chose the work “Sigmund Freud” by Andy Warhol. This piece is from a 1980 series called “Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century,” the addition to the collection being 40” tall and 32” wide.

    Andy Warhol is one of the most recognizable artists of his time and today, and this particular series of work was a very unique move for him.The subject matter of the ten portraits was questioned by critics of Warhol believing that they “felt Warhol was exploiting his Jewish subjects without truly understanding their significance” (“Andy Warhol’s Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century”). However, this is what he always did with his subjects, presenting them in a glamorized way. In my opinion, I do not fully agree with the critics as his treatment of the canvas presented a more gritty life-like quality than a lot of his other pieces.

    Warhol is known for his certain obsession with celebrities and fame. In the case of “Sigmund Freud,” there was a new interpretation to this fame by focusing on subjects famous throughout the arts, law, or science, as opposed to mainstream media. The first thing that obviously stands out as Warhol’s style is the typical screen printed color-blocking techniques that have always been prevalent for him. Though this is all screen-printed it has almost a mixed-media style, with the very textured suit jacket, yet also the very blocked off colors presented in the collar of his shirt. This particular piece has multiple renditions and from the ones I have seen, they all have different geometric blockings of color in the background, that vary in the amount they intersect the details of the face. This particular background treatment is not something that I have seen often from Warhol other than in this series. Making this whole collection even more unique in terms of treatment of the printing and content.

    This piece seems almost messy for Andy Warhol; however, not in the way that sounds. The sketchy and textured overlay line-art is slightly moved to the left. As well as the addition of a second color layer shifted to the right on the bottom. These layers and color choices give this piece an almost 3-D effect. I think the decisions he made make sense in the context of these famous individuals. Warhol is working with real people who were typically not seen surrounded by the same glamour that is present in the film and music industries. Through the messiness of the arts, the geometric and 3-D effects of sciences, and the rigid lines of law, Warhol made a new style within his already iconic one. This is what I got from Newman’s quote, we all want to have our sense of personality, and that is subject to change even throughout our own styles. New times and subjects call for different interpretations through art, and while this collection and piece is obviously done by Warhol, there is that obvious sense of individuality from his other works.

    Andy Warhol’s Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century. (n.d.). Retrieved October 08, 2020, from https://www.masterworksfineart.com/educational-resources/andy-warhol/warhol-ten-portraits-of-jews-of-the-twentieth-century-series-1980/

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  23. Ira Macorncan
    Robert Tracy
    Art 477
    9/10/2020
    Second Writing Assignment

    From the New American Painting, viewing the works of Clyfford Still, I both like and dislike his work. Number 3, 1951 is the painting I feel gives me these thoughts the most. As when looking at his other work, sure they’re simple but that can be the appeal, not everything needs to be complicated or extremely detailed. Just as when someone says they can’t draw or paint, the action they mean to say is that they can’t draw or paint well. But even simplistic scribbles can be art so long as the effort was made into its creation. Which is why I feel this quote works so well too. “That’s the terrible thing: the more one works on a picture, the more impossible it becomes to finish it.” – (Alberto Giacometti) When I work on my projects, I typically try to put details into my art. But sometimes I never really know when to stop adding details when it may not even need it. Especially when an intended image is meant to be simple, I end up adding things like shading and shine to them. Which is also why I both enjoy and dislike Number 3. The painting itself looks more like the aftermath of another work. With the splotches of paint on the sides, and the small spots of exposed canvas between them. While it could be intended or lazy to others, especially to his critics at the time, I can also appreciate it as well. It’s emptiness inspires me to make something, as if to say, if this piece of work can be a big success, then my work has the capability to be better, or to others to even be possible to just say anything could be a piece of art. The colors also help represent this as the black is just a void, as if there was something there, or that something should be there, with the other colors splattered about telling me that something was here but it’s gone now. It’s intriguing, as for me it conflicts with a lot of things I’ve learned or been taught. Such as how as a child with a coloring book is just socially obligated to color within the lines. The piece just throws out expectations, as I can’t know for sure how he did the piece, I can’t confirm if he put effort into it. As such comes my displeasure of the piece as well. I feel like I can’t fully appreciate it because I feel like it’s unfinished. So as I look at the painting I just want him to supposedly finish it, or makes me want to finish it myself. It just irritates me mentally that this painting is actually the finished product and that I want something with more, it makes me want more from it. Of course I can’t judge someone else’s artistic vision as well as the styles they may use. But I can say the art Clyfford Still has produced encourages me to make more, and in some ways to be more simplistic; As well as to appreciate simplistic artwork as a whole. Though I may not do simple things very often, perhaps a change of style once in a while in my artwork could be nice and I’ll have Clyfford and his Number 3 to thank for it.

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  24. Ira Macorncan
    Robert Tracy
    Art 477
    10/8/2020
    Second Writing Assignment

    From the New American Painting, viewing the works of Clyfford Still, I both like and dislike his work. Number 3, 1951 is the painting I feel gives me these thoughts the most. As when looking at his other work, sure they’re simple but that can be the appeal, not everything needs to be complicated or extremely detailed. Just as when someone says they can’t draw or paint, the action they mean to say is that they can’t draw or paint well. But even simplistic scribbles can be art so long as the effort was made into its creation. Which is why I feel this quote works so well too. “That’s the terrible thing: the more one works on a picture, the more impossible it becomes to finish it.” – (Alberto Giacometti) When I work on my projects, I typically try to put details into my art. But sometimes I never really know when to stop adding details when it may not even need it. Especially when an intended image is meant to be simple, I end up adding things like shading and shine to them. Which is also why I both enjoy and dislike Number 3. The painting itself looks more like the aftermath of another work. With the splotches of paint on the sides, and the small spots of exposed canvas between them. While it could be intended or lazy to others, especially to his critics at the time, I can also appreciate it as well. It’s emptiness inspires me to make something, as if to say, if this piece of work can be a big success, then my work has the capability to be better, or to others to even be possible to just say anything could be a piece of art. The colors also help represent this as the black is just a void, as if there was something there, or that something should be there, with the other colors splattered about telling me that something was here but it’s gone now. It’s intriguing, as for me it conflicts with a lot of things I’ve learned or been taught. Such as how as a child with a coloring book is just socially obligated to color within the lines. The piece just throws out expectations, as I can’t know for sure how he did the piece, I can’t confirm if he put effort into it. As such comes my displeasure of the piece as well. I feel like I can’t fully appreciate it because I feel like it’s unfinished. So as I look at the painting I just want him to supposedly finish it, or makes me want to finish it myself. It just irritates me mentally that this painting is actually the finished product and that I want something with more, it makes me want more from it. Of course I can’t judge someone else’s artistic vision as well as the styles they may use. But I can say the art Clyfford Still has produced encourages me to make more, and in some ways to be more simplistic; As well as to appreciate simplistic artwork as a whole. Though I may not do simple things very often, perhaps a change of style once in a while in my artwork could be nice and I’ll have Clyfford and his Number 3 to thank for it.

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  25. Haley Hitchcock
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    Art 477 – 1002
    October 8, 2020

    For my second writing assignment, I have decided to work with the quote “To be stopped by a frame’s edge is intolerable,” from Clyfford Still in regards to Andy Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup Can display. Andy Warhol has always had a soft spot in my heart as one of the pop art icons from the 1960s. His use of bright colors and pop culture icons really created a new movement of materialism within American culture. A man of vision, he works with seemingly ordinary objects and extraordinary people to capture in his works. From use a screen printing style for some of his portraits to hand-painting on others, his ideas and reflections are very iconic in the modern age.
    For his rendition of the Campbell’s soup cans, he painted thirty-two canvases by hand and had them all displayed alongside each other in three rows and eight columns. This type of display takes up the entire wall, leaving the viewer to drown in the sea of red and white. In the picture in the presentation, an onlooker is casting their gaze upon the paintings, which are about double the viewer’s size. There is meticulous detail in the arrangement of these paintings as each one is spaced apart equally among the wall space. It’s interesting to note the intention of this choice in display, as he could have just created one can and displayed that, or created a larger mural of multiple cans on one canvas, but his choice speaks volumes. He must have thought not using the wall more when presented to him was “intolerable.” Warhol’s use of physical space is evident beyond the frame of his images, as he replicates them to engulf the viewer. It comes off as reflection of American media, which is a constant stream of advertisements and consumerism. How could you not want to buy some Campbell’s soup after being confronted in this way? Art normally does not hold space in a corporate environment, but Warhol’s choices make great reflections on the uprising pop culture of the time.
    When studying the actual paintings themselves, they feature the classic Campbell’s soup can design with a red and white color block design and the informational details such as the branding, soup type, and their seal. These cans are placed onto a simple white background, bringing all the focus to the subject itself. Nothing more, nothing less. A lot of Warhol’s works seem to have one very strong subject among an abyss of a background. He didn’t feel the need to bring in other distractions and elements as his subjects can carry his visions enough. What you get is what you see, but what you feel and understand takes time.
    I enjoy Warhol’s paintings and his visions that he chooses to bring into the world. He derives from a different form of art that brings beauty to items that would be seen as essential and domestic to the average consumer. He chooses to capture these items in a vivid and artistic way that may prompt some people to ask “why?” The why behind a piece is always questioned, but I think as a viewer of art, it is important to push aside that “why” and then think “why not?” Why wouldn’t Warhol encapsulate a room with thirty-two paintings of Campbell’s soup? Why wouldn’t he take a seemingly ordinary object, transform it into traditional art, and then make the viewer drown in this form of consumerism? Art never stops at physical work. It stops at the mind’s interpretation and visualization. Warhol’s use of space around his paintings and works speaks volumes on his take on consumerism and pop culture of the 1960s and inspires artists to keep thinking beyond the color choice and paint stroke.

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  26. Phichapa Tippawang (Crystal)
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    ART 477
    8 OCT 2020
    Writing Assignment 2: Stream of Consciousness on Andy Warhol’s Marilyn Diptych
    Commercialization, materialism, and consumerism seems to have been a part of American culture since the beginning. However, there is a point in our history when consuming was the pinnacle of daily American lives: the 60s. Not only did people were eager to have the economic boom, technology was advancing as well. Americans bought more, spent more, ate more, and discarded more. Popular brands become known as synonymous with actual names of products. We are in love with the idea of something more than the thing itself. Oftentimes, this applies to people; they become bigger than themselves. The quote “All the art of the past rises up before me, the art of all ages and all civilizations, everything becomes simultaneous, as if space had replaced time. Memories of works of art blend with effective memories, with my works, with my whole life,” by Alberto Giacometti exemplifies how art, products, and even ideas of people weave into our daily lives becoming idols in our minds without effort.

    The idea of Marilyn Monroe is so much more than who she was. Monroe was the definition of glamor, poise, and class during that time. She was everything that everyone was striving for: to be in the circle of admirers. Contrast that with the hardship of working day and night at minimum wage jobs, Monroe was always on the path to being put on a pedestal and commodified. At that point and to this day, not many people speak about her as a human being: someone with feelings, intelligence, real relationships, and pain. All that everyone wanted to see from her is her beauty, full body, her classic red lipstick with a beauty mark, and even her scent.

    The social commentary on Andy Warhol’s Marilyn Diptych exemplifies the pop art category. Everything is new, exciting, bright, and dare I say cheap? In this sense, this was during the time that everything was commercialized and the working class was able to afford more food, clothing, and even entertainment. Warhol managed to serve art to consumerism through the everyday, disposable products that we go through without a second thought. I have always loved the idea of being cheap and cheerful; the bright colors to fill up a room with such large personalities. Pop culture is now accessible to the public. Of course, Marilyn Monroe’s face was going to be a part of that. Her face can be seen any and everywhere over and over again. That’s exactly what Warhol captured in the time. Her face in bright, beautiful colors that can cheer everyone up, but copied countless times to the point of distortion and nothing of the original grace and subtlety remains. If someone has never known her in real life or to even have seen a movie she starred in, they will still likely know who that person is but will have never known other things about her apart from what she is famous for.

    The spirit of modern art and popular culture at the time was truly a turning point in history. The elite was no longer the only ones with access to entertainment. Popular films and music were taking over and were out for everyone to enjoy, even if they were considered low class. Monroe will live on as the ideal face of beauty, even if the public never acknowledges her intelligence, her sadness, and her personhood. Warhol had the stroke of genius to flip the art world by creating art and life of the poorer, working mass into high class masterpieces for the elite to have to spend money on.

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  27. Irem Ergunes
    Robert Tracy
    ART 434/ART 473/ ART 477
    October 8, 2020
    (This is a combined essay for ART 434, ART 473, and ART 477)
    Writing Assignment #2
    In 1907, Pablo Picasso made the painting “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon,” which was considered a turning point in art history. The ‘Les Demoiselles d’Avignon,” in which he portrayed five prostitutes in the brothel, is the Cubist movement’s harbinger. I believe this is a concrete revolution that occurs in art. The most important feature of this wind blowing on Picasso’s canvas is Africa and Oceania natives’ shown on the canvas by sharp lines, and geometric shapes that he brings to painting are the traces of this interest. The classical perspective of the painting technique is wholly destroyed. Picasso says about Cubism, “Many think that Cubism is an art of transition, an experiment to bring ulterior results. Those who think that way have not understood it. Cubism is not either a seed or a fetus, but an art dealing primarily with forms, and when a form is realized, it is there to live its own life.” Cubism is the most fundamentalist and most consistent attempt to eliminate double meaning, push the viewer to see painting as a mere human-made object and distribute colors and forms on the canvas. In other words, it is to ensure that individual elements collide with each other differently as much as possible to prevent them from distorting the two-dimensional image formed by colors and shapes on the surface by combining them in a vision of reality.
    To grasp the essence of objects, their internal structure, of course, Cubism will get objects and existence not as they appear, but as it thinks. Picasso’s statements about Cubism are imperative as he defines his philosophies. Cubism keeps itself within the confines of painting, and we give color and form the necessary meaning as we see them. It should be a source of interest that we deal with while painting our subjects. Otherwise, what is the point of telling a person that we are doing something that he can see at any moment?
    Les Demoiselles d’Avignon is considered as Pablo Picasso’s painting that initiated the Cubism movement. The Spanish painter Pablo Picasso shocked the art world with the daring and execution-style of the subject he chose in his large-scale image of women in a brothel. These naked girls are so famous that they upset all the traditional painting rules and gave rise to a new style called “cubism.”
    The scene in the painting features prostitutes in Avignon Street’s brothel, where Picasso’s youth passed in Barcelona’s friendly neighborhood. One of the most impressive aspects of the painting is how women show themselves rather than show their sexuality. Their eyes are staring at their audience and looking carelessly. It seems like Picasso tried to create a 3-dimensional style in this painting. Five female figures gained volume like sculptures.
    Picasso invented a new painting with geometric shapes, broken lines, and many points of view. Thus, it opens the way for “abstraction.” Since ancient times, raising women’s arms is a very classic form for art models and has been used throughout art history. Picasso’s pieces remind me of paintings made before him. Picasso’s painting represents a quest. It is an exciting adventure to find what cannot be expressed within the stereotyped classical painting borders. Picasso created a world with the language of painting and believed in it.
    Julia Morgan also was a significant expressionist of her time. She believed that “Architecture is a visual art, and the buildings speak for themselves.” She was one of the most influential female architects globally and became a leader in many issues by overcoming gender barriers. Julia Morgan was an architect who embraced an eclectic style, combining various techniques. Although she liked the neo-classical style, on the one hand, she also adopted a simpler lifestyle that is compatible with nature. Morgan’s most known piece is “Hearst Castle,” built for William Randolph Hearts’ family. William Randolph is world-famous for his sensational journalistic style and larger-than-life personality. Hearst Castle has 56 bedrooms, 61 bathrooms, 19 living rooms, a 127-acre garden, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, tennis courts, a cinema, an airport, and the world’s largest private zoo. The Neptune pool’s veranda, one of the most striking areas of the castle, is admirable with its facade of a rebuilt Roman temple brought from Europe. The complex, a combination of historical architectural styles, includes critical historical artifacts and collections purchased worldwide. I think this structure speaks for itself, as Julia Morgan said.
    Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – June 4, 1970) is an American artist. One of Newman’s essential names of the abstract expressionism movement also pioneered the color field movement within this trend. After turning to abstract art, Barnett Newman took color as a basis in his works. He made monochrome canvases consisting of a single image in a simplified style and divided them into two or three with one or two thin vertical bands. Later, Newman found the technique with his own voice,
    Clifford Still produced his paintings dominated by a simple expression with the desire to purify them from factors such as emotion, mythology, and belief, arranged his compositions with a flickering sliding movement from top to bottom. Barnett Newman expressed limited colors where a few vertical lines separate the surfaces from each other. Mark Rothko is well-known for his large-sized paintings consisting of two or three rectangles with circular corners painted in vivid colors on a monochrome background. The common denominators of the artists that can be considered in this group; Like the generation before them, their artistic knowledge is not based on European painting but from abstract expressionists’ suggestions. The use of light, thin paint, avoidance of textured surfaces, the canvas’s appearance under the paint layer, the transparent composition, and the disappearance of the hierarchy between form and base, straight and carelessness, can be identified as the main features. In this context, “Concord” by Barnett Newman is an excellent example of this technique.
    Unlike sharp canvases that focused on the non-representational meanings of paintings and colors, Newman put a more philosophical limit on his paintings. Newman combines the Jewish traditions and belief system he belongs to with the philosophy he studied in New York and wants his paintings to be perceived as a presentation rather than representation. Newman doesn’t paint a picture that evokes the convention or has a narrative because he doesn’t want to be historicized. In other words, Newman voluntarily breaks his paintings from the yesterday-today-future chronology and confines them to the “moment” and has a nihilistic attitude. Newman supports himself with the words, “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.”

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  28. Josett Manotham-Garin
    Professor Tracy
    ART 477 – SEC 1002
    8 Oct 2020

    Writing Assignment Two: Moment (1946) by Barnett Newman

    “Painting, like passion, is a living voice which when I hear it, I must let it speak, unfettered.” Barnett Newman, a prominent figure of the abstract expressionist movement that emerged in the US in the 1940s, was motivated by the belief that it was a deeply spiritual act to create such artwork. His commitment to philosophical theories is expressed in the titles of his works throughout the 1940s and 1950s, dealing with the Bible and, more precisely, the Jewish myths of creation. For him, art was an act of self-creation and a declaration of independence for politics, intellect, and individuals. In this writing assignment, I will analyze his work following his Onement paintings titled Moment.

    On January 29, 1905, Barnett Newman was born in New York City and passed away on July 4, 1970. He is one of the many major figures in abstract expressionism and a notable painter of the color field as well. Newman was previously working as a teacher, writer, and critic before primarily concentrating as a painter. Before discovering a style that really spoke to him, he produced different kinds of artworks in the 1940s. The “zip” he coined, notable in his later paintings, established the artwork’s spatial structure while dividing and uniting the composition simultaneously. Newman gradually found his voice after completing his painting entitled Onement I in 1948, leading to his later painting Moment (1946), which created a critical point in his career.

    Prior to Moment, Newman experimented with vertical stripes of various length and intensity. Moment was completed in 1946 using oil on canvas as a medium, on a rectangular composition. It might appear from the divider that Newman had used masking tape in the middle to section off a strip of the canvas. The solid, pale yellow zip (or band) forms a bold contrast between the browns, greens, greys, and whites of the two separate streaks. The streaks look identical to the wood panel’s natural grain, which the artist may have used to achieve the texture with a dry brush. While it is possible to read the center as a divide between the two strips, Newman felt that the zip did not split the canvas, but instead produced unity and harmony for the painting.

    When looking at Moment, I couldn’t get an answer or collect any thoughts from it first. Nevertheless, it is mostly the sole goal of abstract expressionism. The more I look at it, the more skewed my perception becomes. My eyes are so fixed that it looks like the painting has begun to blend in with my surroundings. Considering the subdued colors, I can imagine that this piece feels quiet. The palette is certainly not an attention grabber, but it feels inviting and somewhat soothing. It could be expressed as a wood texture when looking to the streaked colors. But something more eerie might be portrayed as well. The streaks almost establish a figure of ghostly beings for me; maybe gazing at the viewer or approaching the viewer slowly. It is very difficult to not want to always associate shapes and colors with something in the subject of abstraction. Maybe Newman didn’t want it to look like wood, but it just seems like the result has come out as it is because of the painting process. Perhaps that is why he said to “allow the painting to speak for itself.” Although simple, he never intended to make it look complex.

    Overall, Newman had a distinctive approach to the use of the color field compared to, for instance, Mark Rothko. The former paints mainly in a color field of a flat, single tone. Not only that, they appear more subdued, compared to Rothko who portrays his brushwork more expressively and integrates additional hues into his color palette. In contrast to seeing it online, I think the experience of seeing Newman ‘s artwork in person would be considerably different. Images may also be angled or lighted in the slightest incorrect way, which can impact what the painting actually looks like. Not just that, his works are also on a larger scale. I can only imagine that, with the paintings, the viewer can get lost and really interact with it, seeing the details and all. Not everybody can understand or appreciate abstract expressionism, of course; but artists such as Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, and Barnett Newman have shown that in today’s world of fine arts, even the simplest, minimalist artwork can make a major impact.

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  29. Andrew Yau
    ART 477 – 1002
    Robert Tracy
    October 8, 2020
    Diver (1963) by Jasper Johns Davis is a deceptively simple piece. Upon seeing it my first impression was that it was some kind of abstract horror piece because of the use of dark colors, controlled yet erratic strokes, what I thought was a vague skull near the top center of the piece, and how I thought the title Diver was in reference to the unknown depths of the ocean. Once I had looked at it more carefully though I realized that it is actually the motions of a diving form often used by competitive swimmers. Upon realizing this I believe Clyfford Still’s quote, “I never wanted color to be color, I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” captures the essence of this piece perfectly.
    Diver is composed of two canvases of equal size put together to form one piece 219.7 x 182.2 cm in total size, and made with the mediums of charcoal, pastel, and watercolor. A dark charcoal/lead grey makes up most of the color on the piece, faded and smudged in some areas while much deeper and dark in others, but a substantial amount of the canvas’s beige color is also along with some white. Lastly there are two footprints at the top, the four hand-prints in the middle and bottom, leading arrows, and the directing smudges. All of these elements are worthless on their own, and it is not until they are all put together that the piece comes into its own and makes a “living spirit”.
    If nothing else I believe that the core of this painting is in conveying a sense of continuous, natural movement which can only be achieved if all the visual elements work together. For example, being made of two canvases that come together in the middle creates a natural line straight down the middle of the piece, yet instead of it separating the piece it instead gives a sense of oneness to it. This is due to the most prominent symbols of the piece being the hand and footprints which allows the viewer to immediately relate human-like expectations to it, such as the need for a pair of hands and feet to make it feel complete. Due to that human expectation the line is able to act as more of a connection between the two canvases, because one will see them as right and left sides of a human body, which need each other to be seen as a whole. Additionally, the line serves as a visual aid to lead one’s eyes to the bottom or top of the canvas quickly and easily. That simple line then works in conjunction with the smudges and faint downward arrows to bring the viewer’s gaze down before being brought back up again by the upwards pointing smudges. Then, once again, the hand prints are also used to lead the eyes with the bottom pointing prints at the bottom while the hand prints near the middle create a resting point and frame of reference for the rest of the movements alongside the footprints. Lastly there is the use of color and strokes that simultaneously contrast and compliment the movement. Darker colors, especially black, are often associated with low energy and stillness and the same is seen here, but with the use of energetic strokes it is also able to convey a sense of movement. This contrast is important, because the low energy of the darker color allows one to immerse themselves and forget those colors are even there for a moment, while the feeling of movement is portrayed all throughout the background of the piece with the strokes
    In conclusion, while a brief example, this shows how integral each and every visual element of the piece is in making the piece come alive. If one were to just analyze one part of this work they would never be able to get the same sense of movement that this piece is able to accomplish when everything comes together and works as a single being.

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  30. Trace Hoffman
    2001157049
    10-08-20

    “Our age — it is of science — of mechanism — of power and death. I see no point in adding to its mammoth arrogance the complement of graphic homage.” This quote by Clyfford Still describes the work of art I chose perfectly. The work of art I chose to talk about is James Rosenquist’s Time Blades series. Even though this is a series, it is still describing one idea and keeps a uniform style throughout the series.

    Rosenquist is a well-known American painter, printmaker and drawer, most known for being an early founder of the Pop Art movement. His art consists of depictions of materials that show a different purpose when he shows them in a different perspective.

    Time Blades is a series of works Rosenquist created in 2007. The work depicts clocks being shown in a psychedelic manner, showing clocks with the numbers skewed around. Letters are even shown here to confuse us even more. The clocks are malformed and combined to add to the effect. The message the work is trying to portray is more of a series of questions thrown back at the viewer. It asks the viewer of their understanding of time and space and how it affects their life. It asks if time is in control of us or if we are in control of time.

    Personally, I find these works interesting, to say the least. There is no real sense of balance within the piece, as it has a very chaotic feeling to it. The various hues of reds and blues make the painting seem like more of an experience rather than an explanation. To me, the center of the painting looks like a palette with many brushes adding paint to themselves. It makes me think of how time is able to paint a new future with its conceptual power. The warped numbers and letters represented makes an impact on our perspective of time. It makes us question if time is exactly linear or not. The chaotic aspects of this painting make me feel overencumbered, yet it is a feeling I like, because it lets me take in the concept of how a lot happens over time and it just keeps going on.

    Referring to the quote, I feel that this painting’s concept is too big to limit to a canvas. I feel this way because time, itself, is a concept every human being thinks about every day. We wonder if it affects us the same as it does every other being in existence. Time is a science that has been explored since the dawn of modern technology, and it’s power is only imaginable. Time Blades describes not only an interpretation of time and space, but a vision of how it can affect everything that exists.

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  31. Isabel Razo
    Robert Tracy – ART 477
    7 October 2020

    F-111 , 1965 JAMES ROSENQUIST

    “Painting, like passion, is a living voice.” (Barnett Newman)

    Pop art is an art style that became popular in the 1950s and 1960s that drew inspiration from popular culture. The piece I will be talking about today is titled F-111 by James Rosenquist that measures ten feet high by eighty-six feet long and was presented at the Castelli Gallery in spring 1965. Because this piece is so big and bright it is very hard to miss. Not only that but there are a lot of different elements in this painting that each have their own voice and their own story about what the Vietnam War is about.
    One of the things I noticed with this painting is that it can be displayed at an angle. For example, it can be installed bent on certain parts of the painting and it doesn’t have to always be displayed straight left to right. By allowing it to be shown at these bent angles it can really draw the viewer in with the explosion of colors and metaphors practically screaming at you to look at it.
    Another unique aspect of this painting is that it is painted on metal sheets which gives the painting more of an industrial look adding more imagery to the already political-based painting. Since the painting was created during the Vietnam War there is a lot of imagery that is scattered in this painting. One of the first things your eyes are drawn to in the painting is the little girl in the middle with a hairdryer that looks like a jet pilot’s helmet over her head. The expression on the little girl’s face has a subtle mischievous/happy look to it which we can interpret as satire. She seems to be a part of upper-class society because of the little makeup she has and the way her hair is done. The way Rosenquist decided to highlight her by not only placing her in the middle of the painting but also by making her the only face in the painting just shows how important her representation in the painting is. Because we see that she has the hairdryer that resembles a jet pilot’s helmet we can interpret it as only the upper class is benefiting from this war and they want it to continue so that they can continue making money selling weapons and other supplies.
    Another element in the painting that I think is important that I actually almost missed because of how well it is collaged in the painting is the F-111 fighter-bomber that stretches the whole canvas. It’s almost like painting has its own voice and wanted to show the F-111 but make it an afterthought like it’s not the most important thing happening in the war but rather highlight all the other things that are happening in pop culture at the time. The way this painting camouflages the F-111 really allows us to look at the painting and try and interpret all of the little metaphors that are all over the painting.
    Finally, another element in the painting that I thought was ironic was the floral wallpaper pattern that is on the left side of the painting. I know it is a minor part of the painting but I feel like it has a different tone than the rest of the painting. To me, the floral wallpaper normalizes the painting and in turn the Vietnam war. Since wallpaper is typically seen in a house it almost insinuates that the war is already impeding in your house and impacting your everyday life. The war made its way into every American household whether they liked it or not making the wallpaper a subtle way to bring up the idea of a house without actually painting one.

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  32. Alex Devlin
    Professor Tracy
    Art 477
    08 October 2020

    Number 2, Clyfford Still

    People can be disdainful of abstract art, and I have often seen works dismissed as juvenile or meaningless. Of course, decades of abstract expressionists will fight this slight until they are blue in the face. Clyfford Still’s painting, Number 2, at first glance does not appear to be much. It is more of a painting where the viewer is the one assigning the meaning. About his own art, Still said: “I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” No meaning is really needed for the piece- like much abstract work, viewers create their own. Meaning, in art, is not necessary. It can be appreciated and admired, but it is an option and not a requirement. Instead, it is better to appreciate how effective artists are in bringing their work to life. How they make their art jump off the canvas and stick with you, like how Still intended.

    Number 2 certainly appears as a living spirit. Most of the canvas is red, like the color of blood- or the color of life, depending on who you ask. Black, organic forms are scattered throughout the canvas like open wounds, with these spots surrounded by a darker shade of red than the rest of the canvas. Inside the spots may be pure black, a shade of gray, white, or brown. Not only that, but since the black forms are organic, people can find their own shapes in them, much like how people find shapes in clouds. Perhaps the comparison of various aspects of the painting to blood or open wounds make it seem a bit morbid, but that is how I interpret it. The best thing about abstract expressionism is that every viewer will have a different interpretation. Maybe someone sees the black as a virus that is spreading, or as ideas diffusing out. Maybe Number 2 did not come with its own meaning- it does not really need one to be successful- but that does not mean the viewers can not make their own.

    Certainly, the piece is most effective when looked at as a whole, like Still intended, rather than focusing on a singular element. Much of Still’s work is the same way, observed as a whole piece rather than looking for specific pieces. It is a lot of fun scrolling through his paintings, and seeing how he works to make all his art “living spirits.” For Number 2, at least in my opinion, what gives the painting life is the appearance of growth. The expansion of the black spots, I mean. It makes the painting feel as though it has movement.

    There is a lot I like about this painting. I appreciate the energy, but there is much more to it than that. The stark contrast between the bright red of the background and the deep black spots makes the painting look aggressive, though the contrast is softened by the darker red around the black. The contrast honestly makes the painting jump out, and makes it very effective. The growth and movement I mentioned earlier also contribute to what makes the painting effective. I like everything about the painting, honestly, as Still’s painting really does seem like a living spirit, and no one element overpowers or stands above the others.

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  33. Genevieve Guido Castro
    Art 434-1002
    Writing Assignment #2
    08 October 2020

    Human Emotions Put to the Test
    “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.”
    ~Barnett Newman
    Along with many other artists during Abstract expressionism of the 1950s, Barnett Newman felt this specific way. Abstract expressionism, otherwise known as “The New York School,” was a movement made by American painters such a Mr. Newman to break free. The artists used it to express themselves freely. By letting their minds run wild, it helped them become spontaneous and improvise while creating abstract art. They opened their minds allowing them to share emotional and expressive pieces that some would question its meaning. Identified as abstract with no intent to categorize it but let it be an expressive gesture, border-line chaotic. The expressionism came from feelings of anxiety and uncertainty after the war causing great emotional effects on everyone.
    Many artists allowed themselves to feel more than they ever had and let it flow through their art. As Barnett Newman states, they want to impact others to build their own connection to the art. The focus of Abstract expressionist is to use surrealist ideals that art comes from an unconscious mind that allows endless creativity with no boundaries. Many great artists aspire to have no identifiable meaning but to cause the audience to self-analyze it.
    There were two types of abstract expressions, action painters and color field painters. Action painters impulsively painted expressive large strokes to indicate a spontaneous way. While the color field group was interested in the cause, their audience speculated their own meaning and feelings about their work. Color Field painters like Mark Rothko helped this approach of using larger open spaces with expressive use of color expand.
    Mark Rothko, an American artist born in Russia in 1903, became an important figure in the art world. Studying at great universities like Yale and Parsons School of Design allowed him to work under influential artists. Having learned a lot about abstract expressionism, he went to work! His work showed attentive attention to elements like color, balance, composition, scale, and shape. As he produced art over time, he realized that he wanted to create that made others express their minds.

    Untitled, 1948.
    Oil on Canvas
    Mark Rothko’s main purpose was to create a controvertible piece that allowed human emotions to be shown. His Untitled painting of 1948 perfectly shows all the characteristics of abstract expressionism and color field. As seen above, he develops an understanding of using abstract colors. This use of color is an important part of abstract expressionism, as is interpretation. Mark Rothko once states, “I’m not an abstractionist, I’m interested only in expressing basic human emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.” Rothko did not see himself as an abstractionist but more expressionist. Like all other artists of this movement, he produces pieces such as Untitled, showing great use of spontaneous color and stroke to express how they feel while painting.
    Each artist can create their own meaning for their art but empowers others to take their own representation. Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko share their opinions on why they construct the way they do. The purpose is to enlighten their audiences to put human emotion to the test and evaluate their own thoughts and individuality. During the Abstract Expression movement, all artists allowed them not to constrict their thinking but to create without regulations. Allowing themselves to be open lets their emotions spill out and be understood differently with great sensibility.

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  34. Genevieve Guido Castro
    Art 434-1002
    Writing Assignment #2
    08 October 2020

    Human Emotions Put to the Test
    “I hope that my painting has the impact of giving someone, as it did me, the feeling of his own totality, of his own separateness, of his own individuality.”
    ~Barnett Newman
    Along with many other artists during Abstract expressionism of the 1950s, Barnett Newman felt this specific way. Abstract expressionism, otherwise known as “The New York School,” was a movement made by American painters such a Mr. Newman to break free. The artists used it to express themselves freely. By letting their minds run wild, it helped them become spontaneous and improvise while creating abstract art. They opened their minds allowing them to share emotional and expressive pieces that some would question its meaning. Identified as abstract with no intent to categorize it but let it be an expressive gesture, border-line chaotic. The expressionism came from feelings of anxiety and uncertainty after the war causing great emotional effects on everyone.
    Many artists allowed themselves to feel more than they ever had and let it flow through their art. As Barnett Newman states, they want to impact others to build their own connection to the art. The focus of Abstract expressionist is to use surrealist ideals that art comes from an unconscious mind that allows endless creativity with no boundaries. Many great artists aspire to have no identifiable meaning but to cause the audience to self-analyze it.
    There were two types of abstract expressions, action painters and color field painters. Action painters impulsively painted expressive large strokes to indicate a spontaneous way. While the color field group was interested in the cause, their audience speculated their own meaning and feelings about their work. Color Field painters like Mark Rothko helped this approach of using larger open spaces with expressive use of color expand.
    Mark Rothko, an American artist born in Russia in 1903, became an important figure globally. Studying at great universities like Yale and Parsons School of Design allowed him to work under influential artists. Having learned a lot about abstract expressionism, he went to work! His work showed attentive attention to elements like color, balance, composition, scale, and shape. As he produced art over time, he realized that he wanted to create that made others express their minds.

    Untitled, 1948.
    Oil on Canvas
    Mark Rothko’s main purpose was to create a controvertible piece that allowed human emotions to be shown. His Untitled painting of 1948 perfectly shows all the characteristics of abstract expressionism and color field. As seen above, he develops an understanding of using abstract colors. This use of color is an important part of abstract expressionism, as is interpretation. Mark Rothko once states, “I’m not an abstractionist, I’m interested only in expressing basic human emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.” Rothko did not see himself as an abstractionist but more expressionist. Like all other artists of this movement, he produces Untitled pieces, showing great use of spontaneous color and stroke to express how they feel while painting.
    Each artist can create their own meaning for their art but empowers others to take their own representation. Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko share their opinions on why they construct the way they do. The purpose is to enlighten their audiences to put human emotion to the test and evaluate their own thoughts and individuality. During the Abstract Expression movement, all artists allowed them not to constrict their thinking but to create without regulations. Allowing themselves to be open lets their emotions spill out and be understood differently with great sensibility.

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  35. Jimmy Truong
    Professor Robert Tracy
    Art 473 – 1001 / Art 477 – 1002
    8 October 2020
    Writing Assignment 2

    Paintings: Cathedra, Barnett Newman and Portrait of Daniel Henry Kahnweiler, Pablo Picasso
    Quotes: “Painting, like passion, is a living voice.” (Barnett Newman) \\ “What simplicity! An object does not have a single absolute form—it has many, as many as there are planes in the region of perception.” (Andre Salmon)

    One of the beauties of art is that it can emit all types of emotions that an artist is feeling. Human emotions help connect everyone. Whether it is through sorrow, joyfulness, anger, or empathy, emotions are something that everyone will be able to understand. It is one of the most universal qualities that humans share that transcend all languages. With art, certain pieces can be able to evoke all types of different emotions a viewer might have. Through art, the emotions of an artist can grasp their audience merely through the act of observing their work. Like what famous abstract expressionist Barnett Newman once said, “Painting, like passion, is a living voice, which, when I hear it, I must let it speak, unfettered.” The art of painting in a way lets artists be able to express themselves without the need for verbal communication. Art in a way is a living voice in how it can convey feelings and emotions towards its audience. Through art, artists can convey their emotions, ideas, and beliefs. It connects them with their audience in a more intimate way than if one were to start talking to them upon first meeting. More intimate emotions such as vulnerability, grief, and love, are often expressed and conveyed through paintings and art.
    Many of Barnett Newman’s works caught my attention during this semester. Paintings such as Concord, Abraham, and Adam are all standout pieces by Newman. Although they look simple in both concept and execution, there are many different layers that would need to be dissected to fully appreciate those pieces. One of the greatest things though is how anyone could come to separate conclusions when interpreting them. One piece that managed to stand out for me though would have to be his oil on canvas piece named Cathedra (1951). Coming in at more than 5 meters wide and 2.5 meters tall, Cathedra features a simplistic concept, but is still very mesmerizing for me in a way. Most of the piece features a large blue surface that spreads across the entire canvas from corner to corner. On the painting are two vertical lines that Newman has shown in his other works that he calls “zips.” Cathedra has two zips that are the only things that are standing out from the vibrant deep blue background. These life-sized stripes are more than just white lines on a canvas. The size of them even have a purpose, and them being life-sized makes them more superior than one might initially believe. One line is white, and the other has a greenish glow to it. From afar, they look as if they are just two lines on a painting, but as I got closer and delved deeper into the painting, they looked more like beams of light to me. The lines spread from the bottom of the canvas to the top, showing that this beam of light was in a way, infinite and incomprehensible. They greatly stood out from the deep vibrancy of the rich blue paint that covered the canvas, with the intensity of the blue paint still playing a very integral part of the painting. Looking at it closely, one would feel as if they were being enveloped by the intensity of the blue paint. Because Newman used multiple layers for the blue paint, it looks as if it has more depth. The varying shades of the rich blue make it seem as if it is a fog that is trying to grasp the observer when looked at very closely.
    Abstract expressionism can have many different interpretations by audiences. This can be the same with all different styles and categories of art as well. A quote describing cubism from a French poet and art critic named Andre Salmon stated, “What simplicity! An object does not have a single absolute form – it has many, as many as there are planes in the region of perception.” A piece that emerged during the times of cubism that popped out to me is the Portrait of Daniel Henry Kahnweiler which was painted by Pablo Picasso in 1910. This piece at first glance is more confusing than anything really. The odd shapes, as well as the grime-y looking colors make it seem incomprehensible. The surfaces seem as if they are at random angles and there is no sense of depth within this piece. The planes of perception are all over the place, but that is what makes it unique. The only parts of the painting that might even resemble the subject of the art piece would have to be the clasping hands at the bottom of the painting and the waves of what looks like to be hair that is slightly towards the right in the top-middle of the painting. Although this piece is hard to decipher, this art form was incredibly challenging and many criticized cubism for its experimental and confusing qualities.
    Abstract expressionism and cubism are similar in a way. Both art forms have had their fair share of critics openly criticizing pieces because of either their seemingly lack of effort, or their sense of randomness. Both styles though require more than just a quick glance from their audience when exposed to the art of these styles. It is more than just a painting. It is more than just art. These canvases contain the blood, sweat, and tears, of which their makers shed when expressing themselves through their brushes. They are overflowing with emotions that cannot be contained within the canvas, and the depth of paintings such as these show that some things are never that simple. These pieces are in a way how artists communicate with their audience. They are a language in and of itself. They speak for themselves, and everyone needs to be quiet to be able to fully appreciate what is in front of them.

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  36. Crysta Urata
    ART 477 – 1002
    Dr. Robert Tracy
    October 8, 2020

    Opinion Paper #2
    I never wanted color to be color. I never wanted texture to be texture, or images to become shapes. I wanted them all to fuse together into a living spirit.” – Clyfford Still
    The work I have chosen to focus on is his series, Flowers, Fish, and Females. In the case of this work, he created it as a commission for The Four Seasons restaurant in New York City, to be an artwork (amongst many others) to add interest to the establishment. It measures 7 foot 6 inches by 24 feet, making it taller than the average male body and long enough to span an entire wall. James Rosenquist’s work was characterized, in my brief research and dive into looking at his works, by very large format and rather complex paintings. I find his style incredibly unique in his use of bold colors and effects given to his paintings that are reminiscent of warp effects typically achieved through digital means. The subjects that seemingly don’t go together, yet somehow mesh well enough for a successful composition are also reasons for praise in my opinion.
    Though I learned through the PowerPoint that Rosenquist seemed to be a rather straightforward and blunt individual in his explanations of his perspectives on art and his thoughts on what painting “was,” I feel that his works that he claimed to have made simply to fill the space given to him actually extend further than even he may have intended or realized. I feel as though commissioned work could be seen as either a blessing or a burden, more or less leaning towards one or the other depending on the prompt, but in the case of this Four Seasons commission I can feel the subjects practically jumping towards me and outside of the canvas. Perhaps it is the way that the fish, though only taking up relatively small spaces in the overall composition, are rendered so 3-dimensionally and given such shine that they seem very lively; or perhaps it is the way that the flowers are in varying states of bloom; or perhaps it is the striking way that the faces of the two females on either side are coming into fruition through “combed” strokes; in the end everything is constantly building on top of the other, like a mish-mash of clashing items, yet the color palette manages to merge them together beautifully.
    I can’t speak for Rosenquist as to what exactly his thoughts were on this artwork, but I feel as though his painting has a life to it that reaches towards the viewer, most definitely filling an unseen space outside of what the painting physically is. To me, this piece is calling to the person looking at it to acknowledge the fact that life itself comes in many forms– and though they may be completely different from each other, they all are capable of holding the same amount of beauty and purpose within them. The two women I find my eyes jumping between have rather obscured facial expressions, yet I can feel the curiosity and the intensity in their eyes alone. The fishes are all going different directions but the spark in their eyes come through and the movement of the ones without faces still registers because of the shining speckles littering their scales, making it like they’re still in water even whilst swimming amongst so many warmer, bolder items. The flowers, too, are all different types and some are more bloomed than others which are just starting to open; however, like the people gazing upon them, their color, their maturity, and their looks matter not in determining their importance to the bigger picture.

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